The Civil War - Weebly

The Civil War - Weebly

The Civil War The War of Northern Aggression (to the South) Was the Civil War fought over: A: Slavery B: States Rights Antislavery Movement: Key Leaders Frederick Douglass Prominent speaker for American Anti-Slavery Society Former slave

Started antislavery newspaper: North Star William Lloyd Garrison Uncompromising abolitionist Constitution supported slavery; had to change the Constitution Sojourner Truth Born: Isabella Baumfree Former slave Martin Delany 1st African American to graduate from Harvard Medical School

Founded newspaper: Mystery Supported colonization in Liberia Harriet Tubman Former slave Conductor on the Underground Railroad Antislavery Movement: Divisions Participation of Women Allowed Sarah & Angelina Grimke Sojourner Truth Race

African Americans need was urgent Believed whites saw them as inferior Tacticsb Antislavery Movement: Resistance North South Abolition was a radical idea Merchants : worried it would sour business between N & S White workers & labor leaders: competition would lower wages Blacks seen as inferior People dont want them living in

their neighborhoods Southerners: outraged & defended slavery Postmasters refused to deliver abolitionist literature Southern congressmen: Gag Rule passed The Underground Railroad 40,000 100,000 slaves escaped using the Underground Railroad Wanted: Harriett Tubman AKA: Black Moses $40,000 Reward

Calhoons Address to the Senate I have, Senators, believed from the first that the subject of slavery would, if not prevented by some timely & effective measure, end in disunion [of the United States] It has reached a point when it can no longer be disguised or denied that the Union is in danger. You have thus had forced upon you the greatest & the gravest question that can ever come under your consideration: How can the Union be preserved? ~John C. Calhoon March 4, 1850 Missouri Compromise of 1820

Review: Set 3630 line Provided balance in the Senate War With Mexico Motives Manifest destiny Obtain California from Mexico Racism: Mexicans considered semi-Indian Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) US gained California & New Mexico Territory US settled claims with citizens against Mexico ($3.2 million) US paid Mexico $15 million

Mexico Territory South: government had no right denying citizens of their property or preventing them from taking their property to territories North: areas should be closed to slavery while they are still territories; stop the spread of Slave Power Wilmot Proviso & Popular Sovereignty David Wilmot (Penn-D) Amendment

neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any territory gained from Mexico Popular Sovereignty People in the territories decide on the issue of slavery Compromise of 1850 California asks to join as a free state Admission would shift the balance of power in senate Solution:

Come up with another compromise Henry Clay (Kent) wrote compromise John C. Calhoon (S.C.) opposed Daniel Webster (Mass) favored Use your smart phone Find the 5 provisions of the Compromise of 1850. You have 5 minutes!

Compromise: 5 separate laws California admitted as a free state People in New Mexico & Utah territories would decide the issue of slavery 3. Sale of slavery in DC abolished (but not slavery) 4. Texas would give up claims to New Mexico for $10 million 5. Fugitive Slave Act : 1. 2. 2 troubling issues with the Fugitive Slave Act 1. Ambiguity of popular sovereignty S: insisted on not prohibiting slavery

2. during territorial stage N: settlers could bar slavery when they wished Fugitive Slave Act Fugitive Slave Act 1. ALL citizens of US would assist in the return of escaped slaves. 2. Trial by jury denied to escaped slaves.

A Tale of 2 Books Uncle Toms Cabin (1852): Harriet Beecher Stowe Cannibals All (1857): George Fitzhugh Illustrated that slavery was opposed to beliefs many Northerners held (importance of women & ideal family) Simon Legree, slaver owner, everything the North feared & despised Slavery could corrupt anyone Presented a picture of slavery in the South Northerners could believe

Northern industrialists were no better than cannibals Didnt care about workers pay, living conditions & could easily replace workers Slave holders had a vested interest in their slaves Effects of the books Northerners: US could not be a country of Simon Legrees Slavery would ruin the US South: Represented the true spirit of the American Revolution since Revolutionary leaders had slaves

Slave households had order, grace & a sense of liberty Northerners were arrogant & self righteous In a nutshell: made the 2 sides hate each other more Stephen Douglas Senator: Illinois Drafted the Kansas 2 Nebraska Act motivations: 1. Wanted Chicago to benefit from western development

2. Wanted to run for president Kansas Nebraska Act Supported the practice of popular sovereignty Asking the nation to repeal the Missouri Compromise 1820 9 months debate; finally passed Republican Party Members: Northerners who were disgusted with the Kansas-Nebraska Act Dedicated to stopping Slave

Power, the repeal of the Kansas Nebraska Act & the Fugitive Slave Act Political Parties Whigs fell apart after 1850 Know Nothings (1854) Grew out of the issue of Nativism AKA: The American Party Every American & naturalized Protestant citizen throughout the Union, [should] use his utmost exertions to aid the cause by organizing & freeing the country from that monster [Catholicism] which is only waiting to approach to plant its flag of tyranny, persecution, and oppression among us.

The American Party Kansas Immigrant Aid Society: 1200 free soilers to Kansas Proslavery settlers in Missouri went to Kansas to vote illegally 1855: 2 constitutions & capitals Topeka: Antislavery Lecompton: Proslavery 1856: proslavery southerners

Bleeding Kansas John Brown led a group to a proslavery settlement near Pottawatomie Creek Killed 5 men Looting in Lawrence + Pottawatomie Creek = summer of murderous raids known as Bleeding Kansas Bleeding Sumner Senator Charles Sumners speech Crime Against Kansas earned him a beating at the hands of Preston Brooks.

Kansas 1857 Proslavery group writes a constitution: Lecompton Constitution Most in Kansas were anti-slavery Buchanan supported Lecompton Constitution Constitution defeated: Aug. 1858 Kansas remained a territory where slavery was legal Election of 1856 Democrats

Know Nothings Republicans James Buchannan Millard Fillmore John C. Freemont Feared foreigners & Catholics Federal government has the right to restrict slavery; Kansas admitted as a free

state; supported temperance Courted immigrants Supported the Kansas Nebraska Act Support of South & key Northern states Winner Hoped the Supreme Court would deal with the issue of slavery for good Strong Northern support Dred Scott v. Sandford 7:2 decision against Scott

Effects of decision: 1. Slaves did not have rights to sue in court 2. Enslaved people could not win freedom by living in a free territory or state 3. Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional & all territories were open to slavery Lincoln-Douglas Debates (Illinois) Illinois deeply divided over slavery 7 debates on the issue of slavery in the territories Who would YOU vote for? Why? Stephen Douglas (D) White Americans were superior to African Americans Tolerated slavery Supported popular sovereignty

Abraham Lincoln (R) Shared Douglas views regarding African Americans Majority should not have the power to deny a minority of their rights Did not believe the federal government had to power to forbid slavery Slavery was wrong; an issue of A house divided against itself cannotmorals stand. I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave & half free. I do no expect the Union to be dissolved I do not except the house to fall but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other. -Abraham Lincoln June 1858

WINNER John Browns Raid Attacked a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia 21 men (5 African Americans) Plan: give weapons to enslaved people so they could rebel Surrendered to Col. Robert E. Lee Brown: guilty of treason & to be hung Nation Divided Against Itself Election of 1860

Southern (D) Moderate Southern (Constitutional Union) Northern (D) Northern (R) John C. Breckinridge John Bell Stephen

Douglas Abraham Lincoln Committed to an aggressive policy of expanding slavery in the territories. Slaveholder NC, AR, DE, MD, TN, KY & VA TX, LA, MS, AL, FL, GA SCballot in the South On &

the Supported popular sovereignty Against slavery in the territories NJ (split) & MO Every free state except NJ (split) On the ballot in the North Lincoln won with out 1 southern electoral vote; 39% of popular vote;

180 majority electoral college votes Lower South Secedes Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia & South Carolina Southerners outraged Planters & proslavery called for the South to secede Secessionists argued: states joined voluntarily & could choose to leave Lower South Secedes & forms the Confederate Sates of America & elected Jefferson Davis President Scramble for a

Compromise Sen. John Crittenden (Kent): plan would recognize slavery south of 36 30; Lincoln: NO Horace Greeley: let the seceding states go peacefully Northern businessmen: force the states to return Lincolns Position Succession wrong Committed to preventing the expansion of slavery Duty to enforce the laws of the US We must not be enemies. Though passion may have

strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield & patriot grave to every living heart will yet swell the chorus of the Union when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature. Abraham Lincoln 1st Inaugural Address & plea to the South Ft. Sumter (SC) Federal troops occupied Lincoln needed to resupply Symbol of the Union he swore to preserve Fighting = responsible for starting a war Abandoning = acknowledging the authority of the

Confederate government Confederate Pres ordered Gen PGT Beauregard to demand Sumters surrender Anderson: NO April 12, 1861: Beauregard opened fire; Anderson surrendered Upper South Secedes Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee & Arkansas Lincoln had no choice but to respond Asked for volunteers South = act of war

4 border states = uncommitted o i n U e d h e t r o n t Ca res ce r be

o f by Northern & Southern Ecomonies 1. Where were most of the textiles & other manufacturing centers located? North or South 2. Where was most of the food grown or produced? North or South

US Population Density 3. Where was most of the population located in 1860? North or South Railroad/Transportation 4. Where were most of the railroads located? North or South Telegraph Lines & Pony Express Route/Communication 5. Where were most of the lines of communication

located? North or Advantages North/Union 2x railroad tracks & factories (21,700: 9000 miles; 110,000: 20,600) Balanced economy: farming & industry Financially: better off Already functioning government Existing army & navy 2/3 of nations population (21.5 million: 9 million) South/Confederacy 7 of 8 military colleges were in the South Most officers sided with the Confederacy

Only needed to defend borders & not initiate attacks Soldiers were eager to fight: a struggle for their way of life Strategies North Lincoln orders a blockade of seceded states Troops & gunboats to gain control of the Mississippi Cut the Confederacy in 2; the Anaconda Plan Seize the capitol: Richmond, Virginia

South Prepare & wait War of attrition Stop exporting cotton to Europe Technology New bullet shaped ammo Rifling Shells Canister South: War Effort persuade

people to sacrifice personal interests for the common good Build loyalty to the new government Fewer resources Lee called for a draft 3 yr service White men 18 35; later 45 then 50 Farmers produce had to contribute 1/10 of South: War Effort Male slaves seized for military labor States worked against draft officials

Asked Europe for help No recognition Britain: ports used for privateers France: would not support Confederacy w/o Britain North: War Effort Had to convince citizens that saving the Union was worth the loss Britain: threatened invasion after 2 Confed representatives taken off a British ship

Lincoln - $19 billion from Britain for compensation Republicans Pass Bills Pacific Railroad Homestead Act Act Tariffs $$ to War Federal income tax: 3 5% Internal Revenue Act: tax on liquor, tobacco, medicine & newspaper ads Opposition to War Northern

draft $300 buy your way out Copperheads: Democrats against the war Lincoln: Army shut down opposition newspapers Disloyal legislative members arrested Kent: martial law Suspended writ of habeas corpus Emancipation & the War Lincoln

opposed slavery; lacked power to abolish Ending slavery = strategy to end war 1/1/63: Emancipation Proclamation Slaves in areas of rebellion are free Announcement = Democrats made gains in election of 1862 African Americans Join the War Union Gen. Benjamin Butler: seize enemys property contraband July 1862: Lincoln allows African Americans to join the military

65: 180,000 ; +1/2 were former slaves July 1863: Massachusetts 54th Infantry under command of Robert Gould Shaw led attack on Ft. Wagner Hardships South: food shortages, labor shortages, desertions, women filled jobs North: some industries hurt, women filled jobs, cheaply made products = more profits Prison Camps & Medical Care

Andersonville: most notorious 35,000 men on 26 acres 100 died a day 1:4 soldiers died from disease Dysentery, typhoid, malaria, pneumonia 1:5 died from wounds Clara Barton angel of the battlefield: found the American Red

Cross Battle Casualti es Ft. Sumter Commanders Victory Significance C: Beauregard U: Anderson

Confed Opening shots of Civil War 1st Battle of Bull Run U: 2900 C: -200 U:McDowell C: Beauregard, Thomas & Stonewall Jackson Union

1st major battle Shiloh U: +13,000 C: ~11,000 U: Grant & Buell C: Johnson Union Bloodiest single battle Antietam

U: +12,000 C: ~14,000 U: McClellan C: Lee Union Bloodiest DAY of the Civil War Fredericksburg U: 13,000 C: 5000

U: Burnside C: Lee Confed Burnsides actions led to the massacre of his men Gettysburg U: +23,000 C: +28,000

U: Meade, Chamderlain C: Lee, Longstreet, Picket Union Bloodiest battle U: Grant Union Confed Vicksburg

Gettysburg Address 9/19/1863 2 minute speech 15,000 people gathered to hear Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave

the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. Election 1864 Problems Radical Republicans: angered Lincoln vetoes Wade-Davis Bill Supported John C. Fremont Democrats George McClellan Capture of Atlanta = support for Lincoln = 212 of 233 electoral votes

13th Amendment Ratified December 18, 1865 Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction Lincoln: slavery once divided a nation, lets begin to heal wounds South Surrenders There is nothing left for me to do but see General Grant and I would rather die a thousand deaths ~R.E. Lee

Sherman moves Confed: -35,000 North starving men in Richmond Grant blocked Lees moves April 9: Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House Lincoln is Assassinated Group led by John Wilkes Booth April 14, 1865: shot Lincoln in the head at Fords Theater 14 days for the funeral train to travel

from DC to Springfield, IL

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