The Cold War Begins - WWW.MOESPLACE.US

Healing the Wounds of War A. G.I. Bill

1. Government Issued (GI) was a nickname for members of the armed forces. 2. PURPOSES OF G.I. BILL - Help returning war make a smooth re-entry into civilian life. - Provide money to veterans for college

- Help veterans in finding a job - Provide veterans with loans to buy a home, a farm, or a business. B.

Baby Boom (1945-1965) 1. Drastic rise in the birthrate. 2. Lasted two decades following the war. A. Presidential Election of 1948

- Truman blamed for post-war inflation - Republican Congress did not like Democrat Truman - Truman wins Election of 1948 B. The Fair Deal

- Name of Trumans plan for America - Few of Trumans programs are passed by Congress A. United Nations (UN): 1945 1. Many countries wanted to prevent a

third World War. 2. 50 nations created the Charter or plan. The Iron Curtain Falls on Europe

A. Different Economies 1. U.S. - Free Enterprise 2. Soviet Union - Communism B. Different Governments 1. U.S. Democracy, Republic

2. Soviet Union Communism, dictatorship * Stalin would not let Poland have independent/free elections C. PROBLEMS

1. Stalin would not let Poland have independent/free elections as he had promised 2. Stalin was upset because the U. S. and allies did not launch an immediate invasion of Europe during the beginning of WWII.

3. Soviets were mad because the A-bomb was kept secret. The U.S. wanted to:

The Soviets wanted to: Encourage Democracy Encourage

Communism Get raw materials & new Take industrial equip. markets for industry from Eastern Europe to repair factories

Stabilize Europe for new Control Eastern Europe markets for industry to balance power against U.S. Reunited Germany

Keep Germany divided and weak A. The Superpowers: United States (US)

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) B. Truman Doctrine: 1. Beginning of US containment policy to keep communism from spreading in Europe

and Asia 2. Provide economic ($) aid to struggling countries (Greece & Turkey) C. Marshall Plan: 1. Help countries of Europe rebuild after

WWII 2. Stop threat of the spread of Communism in Europe Video Clip: Truman Doctrine & Marshall

Plan D. The Iron Curtain: (Churchill Speech) - imaginary line dividing Communist countries from countries in Western Europe during the Cold War.

RED: Warsaw Pact Countries also called Eastern Bloc Countries BLUE: North Atlantic Treaty Organization Countries (NATO)

GREY: Neutral Military Countries DARK GRAY: Communist but Independent of Eastern Block Countries Albania: Independent of Soviet

Union but close ties to Communist China E. H-Bomb: 1. Hydrogen Bomb 2. H-Bomb gets its power from fusing

together of hydrogen atoms * same method as stars and the sun 3. Both US and USSR developed own HBombs F. Sputnik:

1. 1957: 1st satellite to orbit the Earth - launched by the Soviet Union Sputnik: (Continued) 2. Beginning of the space race - 1st to conquer space?

- 1st man on the moon and back safely? 3. Beginning of arms race - Out do each other with weapons 3. 1958: Congress funds NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration

- To compete with Soviet space program G. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 1947 MISSION: - to collect information and spy on foreign

governments. H. U-2 Crash: (May 1960) 1. American U-2 spy plane shot down over the USSR 2. Very embarrassing for the U.S.

Video Clip: U 2 Crash A. West Germany 1. The three sections controlled by the

U.S., Great Britain, and France 2. Became one independent country in 1948. a. Capital: Bonn B. East Germany

1. Controlled by the USSR 2. Berlin: divided into East and West Berlin. a. West was controlled by the U.S., GB, and France. b. East was controlled by the USSR.

C. The Crisis in Berlin (page 469) 1. Soviets had a problem with the idea that a free western style of government and economy was in a Soviet zone.

2. Soviets blocked roads, rail, and river traffic into free West Berlin. 3. Western leaders decided to fly supplies into West Berlin. 4. This became known as the Berlin airlift.

Video Clip: Berlin Airlift North Atlantic Treaty Organization - Military alliance among several Western

European Countries and the U.S. PURPOSE OF NATO - Military alliance to prevent attack by the Communists

- Military alliance between the USSR and the Eastern European Countries. The Second Red Scare

A. American Fears 1. Soviet Union has an atomic weapon. 2. Communists gain control of China. - China was the most populous country in the world.

B. China after WWII 1. Chiang Kai-Shek a. nationalist leader of China during and after WWII. b. fled to Taiwan once the Communist

party gained control in China 2. Mao Zedong: Communist that overthrew Kai-Shek by 1949.

A. House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) 1. investigated of radical groups in the U.S. 2. focused on the threat of communism in

the U.S. 3. Hollywood: had many communist in it - Blacklisted: could not be hired. Video Clip: Red Scare and HUAC

- Hollywood Ten: writers and directors who were thought to be radicals and were called before HUAC. B. The Rosenberg Trial: - Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were tried

and executed for leaking A-bomb secret information to the Soviets. - They were executed in 1953 Video Clip:

Alger Hiss & Rosenberg Trial C. Sen. J. McCarthy: - helped create a national fear and hatred of communism.

- McCarthyism: tactic of spreading fear and making baseless charges against people Video Clip: MacCarthyism

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