The Cold War - Mrs. G's History Class

The Cold War For Students of European History Political Theories and the Beginning of the Cold War The End of WWII V-E Day Allied forces cross the Rhine River and get within 70 miles

of Berlin Soviet forces push into the outskirts of Berlin On April 27th Germans are surrounded in Berlin in an area 10miles x 3miles On April 30, 1945 Hitler poisons his mistress and shoots himself in a bunker in Berlin. His body is carried outside by his next in command and burned Germany surrenders on May 7th

The End of WWII V-J Day Americans demanded an unconditional surrender for Japan Japan was willing to surrender if their emperor could remain in power On August 6, 1945 the Enola Gay dropped Little Boy on Hiroshima. On August 9th the Soviet Union declared war on Japan AND

the US dropped another atomic bomb on Nagasaki Japan surrendered August 15th, 1945 Rising Tensions- Yalta and Potsdam Conferences Poland Should Poland have their original non-communist government back or keep the communist government that the Soviets put into place during the war?

Declaration of Liberated Europe Which form of government should the countries of Europe be influenced to form as they rebuild? Germany Should Germany be forced to pay war reparations even though the country is broken and destroyed?

WW2 Peace Conferences Yalta and Potsdam Yalta (February, 1945) Divide Germany into 4 zones Bring Nazi war criminals to trial Allow the freed nations of Europe to hold democratic elections (Declaration of Liberated Europe) Set up a commission to look into war reparations Russia would join the war in the Pacific and help the

US WW2 Peace Conferences Relations worsened in between the two conferences Roosevelt died, Truman did not have Roosevelt's natural charisma Stalin invited Poland's non-communist leaders for a visit and then arrested them

America developed the atomic weapon (meaning they did not need Russias help in the Pacific anymore) WW2 Peace Conferences Potsdam (July, 1945) Agreements made in the first conference stuck War reparations- Russia was allowed to take whatever they wanted from their zone and 10% of all industrial equipment from the other zones.

Wording- Text Excerpts Remember: Hiroshima was bombed August 6th so these agreements were made before the world knew the US had the bomb United Nations There shall be established a Council composed of the Foreign Ministers of the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, China, France, and the United States.

Founded 1945 to replace League of Nations Security Council Allies get permanent seats

United States Great Britain Soviet Union France China Divided Germany

Allied Occupation 1945 Germany split into four zones of occupation Berlin (inside Soviet Zone) was also split into four zones. Trizone

East and West Germany 1949 Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) Established Trizone and W. Berlin Soviets establish a

communist government in East Germany. Churchills Iron Curtain Speech March 5, 1946 Westminster College Fulton, Missouri Berlin Wall

1961 East Germans begin construction of the Berlin Wall Separated East and West Berlin Encircled West Berlin Symbolic Significance

Berlin Wall Access to Trizone restricted Video Peter Fechter Shot 1962 The Marshall Plan

European Recovery Program Two Aims: 1) Key to political stability was economic recovery 2) Political stability would better fight communism

Gen. George C. Marshall US Secretary of State Soviet Union viewed it as American interference Prevented border states from

participating Western Europe was remade in the American image, easier trading partner. Return of the

Alliance System North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Established 1949 Collective Defense Pact Western Europe North America

Attack on any member nation treated as an attack on all member nations Warsaw Pact Established 1955 Collective Defense Pact

Soviet Union Eastern Europe Response to NATO On Guard for Peace and Socialism Cold War Alliances

Weapons Technologies M.A.D. Mutually Assured Destruction 1949 USSR tests its first nuclear weapon Arms Race Video

Espionage Video (play to 3:03) USA successfully exploded a test bomb in 1952 Hydrogen Bomb Russia successfully

exploded a test bomb in 1953 China successfully exploded a test bomb in 1967 Bomb Delivery Systems USA- B52 Bomber: range 6,000 miles

Russia (1957)- Sputnik Satellite: Was not a weapon, but hinted at the possibility that it could become one. At the end of the 1950s, American Intelligence estimated that 20 million Americans would die in a missile attack from Russia

Cruise Missiles 1950s Regulus and Matador Nuclear Missiles SLBMs (Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles)

Polaris Poseidon Trident 1960s 1970s

1980s Royal Navy Trident II Test Nuclear Missiles ICBMs (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles)

Minuteman III ICBM Launch Pattern Note Multiple Warheads Troops: Nato: 2.6 million Warsaw: 4 million

NATO vs Warsaw Tanks: NATO: 13,000 Warsaw: 42,500 Artillery NATO: 10,750 Warsaw: 31,500

ICBMs US: 8,000 Russia: 7,000 Planes US: 4,000 Russia: 5,000

All together between all nations there were 1 million Hiroshima sized bombs by 1986 MAD Video Whos Winning??? 1957 Sputnik launched by

USSR First satellite to be placed into orbit PANIC IN US Emphasis on math and science education Berlin Wall in 1986

Remarks at Brandenburg Gate Failure of the Planned Economy Soviet benefits: low rents, cheap staple food items, free health care/day care, very little unemployment Soviet Drawbacks Collectivization unproductive

Command economy cannot produce enough consumer goods Long lines, few luxury items Central planning unaware of local problems Lifetime security = little worker motivation Fall of Berlin Fall

1989 Peaceful Revolution Nationalist governments elected across Eastern Europe Modern Society- The Welfare State Welfare the idea that the government should take responsibility for the welfare of its people

Otto Von Bismarck was the first to institute a welfare system in modern Europe Win the support of the working class Masses of unhappy down on their luck citizens become breeding grounds for revolution Modern Society- The Welfare State There was no welfare in the rest of Europe before

1900. Britain was the next country to institute welfare 1. Boer War- British War (1899-1901) citizens were not medically fit to fight. Threat to national defense 2. Sickness- The industrial output of the nation was suffering 3. Social Investigations- poverty was the cause of unemployment, poor health, poor productivity. Drinking and gambling were found to by symptoms not

causes. 4. Pressure from political parties that promised reforms to the working classes. Planned Welfare State William Beveridge (1942) There were 5 Giants that blocked progress: 1. Want 2. Disease

3. Squalor 4. Ignorance 5. Idleness He came up with an insurance system to fight these: All workers, all employers and the state would pay in This would allow for free health care, old age pensions, sickness, and disability, child allowances France

Germany UK USA

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