THE DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION I have used some other sources in my lectures for this class:** Owens, R.E., Farinella, K.A., & Metz (2015). Introduction to
communication disorders: A lifespan evidence-based perspective (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson. Justice, L.M., & Redle, E.E. (2014). Communication sciences and disorders: A clinical evidence-based approach (3rd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education
Hulit, L.M., Fahey, K.R., & Howard, M.R. (2015). Born to talk: An introduction to speech and language development (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Owens, R.E. (2014). Languge disorders: A functional approach
to assessment and intervention (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education. Roseberry-McKibbin, C., & Hegde, M.N. (2015). Advanced review of speechlanguage pathology: Study guide for PRAXIS and comprehensive examination (4th ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
This is in press, and will be out in 2015. A terrific resource:** Paul, R., & Norbury, C.F. (2012). Language
disorders from infancy through adolescence: Listening, speaking, writing, and communicating (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. And workshops I have attended for CEUs:** ASHA 2013, Chicago ASHA Schools Conference Long Beach, 2013
CSHA, 2014, San Francisco ASHA Schools Conference, Pittsburgh, 7/14 Why is all of this information
about child language development important?** We need to recgonize what is typical and what is not typical so we can intervene as early as possible in childrens lives Over 70% of Americas
prisoners I. COMMUNICATION** Definition: The process of sending and receiving messages that serve to transmit information between persons or groups
Communicative competence occurs when speakers effectively influence their listeners behaviors Most human interactions have an underlying
agenda II. VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION A. Nonverbal Communication B. Verbal Communication**
Involves the use of words to exchange ideas Auditory-oralspoken language
Visual-graphicwritten, pictures, gestures (gestures that are systematice.g., sign language) C. Extralinguistic Aspects of Verbal Communication III. SPEECH**
Physical production of sounds to communicate meaning through the neuromuscular control of the structures of the vocal tract
Involves articulation, voice, resonation, and fluency Phonology:** Study of the sound systems of a language
We have the IPA English orthography is problematic:
Bough, thought, rough, though, through IV. LINGUISTICS** Linguistics is the study of language
We are most concerned with 2 types of linguistics Sociolinguistics Developmental linguistics V. LANGUAGE**
Language is the system of arbitrary verbal symbols that speakers put in order according to a conventional code to communicate ideas and feelings or to influence the behavior of others Expressive language
Receptive language Linguistic competence** Refers to our hypothetical, unconscious linguistic ability
Represents speakers idealized, underlying knowledge of their language Linguistic performance**
Refers to a speakers production of linguistic units Influenced by limitations
such as fatigue, memory lapses, distractions, illness, etc. VI. THE LINGUISTIC ASPECTS OF LANGUAGE A. Semantics
Semantics involves: Paul & Norbury, 2012: Word relations in semantics:** How do meanings of words
interact with each other? For example, we have antonyms, which are opposites:** Binary antonyms-no middle ground (alive vs. dead).
Gradable antonyms: Represent 2 different points on a continuum (attractive vs. homely) Synonyms:**
Different words that carry similar meanings Scared/afraid Beautiful/pretty
Hard/difficult In therapy for LI (language impaired) students: Semantic relations:**
This term describes the role that each noun in a sentence has in relation to the verb in the sentence For example, Daddy assumes 2 different semantic relations:**
Im looking for Daddys ball (Daddy is the possessor) Daddy threw the ball (Daddy is the agent or actor who instigated the action)
Semantics also involves a childs knowledge of:** Words with multiple meanings (rock, pound)
Deictic words whose referents change depending on who is speaking (this, that, here, there) Categoriesmental constructs that allow a child to group similar words together
The new Common Core State Standards What categories can you think of that a kindergartener might need to know? B. Pragmatics**
Practical use of language in social interaction Focuses on the speakers achieving a practical outcome through using language as a tool
Speaker and listener roles differ due to social context Justice & Redle 2014 state that: 2 types of speech acts: Direct speech act:**
Only has one interpretation Please pass the butter. Discourse:**
Conversation; extended verbal exchange on some topic Discourse involves:
Youtube example:** In the following clip from Big Bang Theory (Sheldon and Amy in car with Penny):
Penny is driving Sheldon to meet Amy for the first timeit is a first date What rules of discourse do Sheldon and Amy violate? Discourse also involves:
C. Morphology** The study of minimal, meaningful units of language
Morphemes are the smallest elements of language that carry meaning Free morphemes stand alone
Bound morphemes must be attached to free morphemes to carry meaning Types of Free Morphemes:**
Grammatical morphemes/function words: is, the, of, and, a, but Lexical morphemes/content words:
words that carry the meat For example: cloud, university, taco, student, Harry Potter, run, walk, write, funny, crazy, blue Types of bound
morphemes:** Inflectional: alter the meaning of the free morpheme to which they are attached without deriving a new grammatical category
Usually these are suffixes (see p. 27) such as plural s, possessive s, past tense ed, etc. Derivational morphemes: In childrens language**
Inflectional morphemes appear before derivational morphemes The new Common Core State Standards
With one girl, LaShon, a first grade 6-year old We worked with her first grade language arts book
I would have LaShon read each page, and we would talk about the vocabulary and what it meant, focusing first on comprehension and decoding Then we picked out words from the text that had suffixes
LaShon wrote them on the board and underlined the suffixes She said she thought it was fun! D. Syntax**
1. Definition Specifies rules for sequencing or ordering words to form phrases and sentences
Deals with rules for word order in a language 2. Types of Sentences McCormack et al., 2011 A nationally representative
study of the association between communication impairment at 4-5 years and childrens life activities Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54, 1328-1348. Hayiou-Thomas, Dale, & Plomin (2014) Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (June issue) Longitudinal study of 2,923 twin pairs in the
United Kingdom Questions: 1) Were parent referrals accurate? And 2) did language problems at age 4 predict language problems at age 12? Findings of Hayiou-Thomas et
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