The Dutch Republic: The Golden Age

The Rise of Mercantilist Empires The Tudors Unify England House Tudor gains power after winning the War of the Roses in 1485.

Star Chamber is created to become the highest court (only for nobles of course). Weights and measures are set, begging is punished, tariffs are issued, local elites are given power (justice of the peace), monopolies are granted. All of this expands trade and unifies England. A bureaucracy is created which effectively administered.

Wales and Ireland are subjugated. Mary After the death of Henry VIII Edward briefly ruled followed by bloody Mary who executed protestants. When she died Elizabeth I became queen

and agreed to religious toleration. Puritanism will sweep through England and eventually many Puritans will leave for America. Elizabeth I Ruled through patronage and encouraged

a feeling of belonging to a nationality English. Efficiently governed with the bureaucracy of her father. England became a manufacturing power. Encouraged exploration and defeated the Spanish Armada.

Economic Power England expanded trade and manufacturing more than any other country during this period. Mortality rates fell and fertility rose. Primogeniture helped keep land together.

Enclosure, though hated by the peasants, increased arable land and farming output. Iron, timber, and coal industries were developed. Colonization The English colonies were a money

making venture. And were developed for trade and extracting raw materials. London will replace Antwerp as a power. East India Company founded to rival Portugal and Spain. Tobacco Moved slowly, but this helped to develop

powerful colonies Society Gentlemen, middling sort, poor. Noble vs Gentry. The wealthy had a sense of community by serving on councils and helping to manage

the cities. The poor had terrible conditions. Crime was severely punished, but poor laws were passed in 1598 to help the poor. The Dutch Republic: The Rise and Decline of a

Golden Age, 1581-1715 The emergence of Dutch power: Anti Spanish & Anti Hapsburg resistance 1581: Dutch Constitution As it is apparent to all that a prince is constituted by God to be

ruler of a people, to defend them from oppression and violence as the shepherd his sheepand when he does not behave, on the contrary, oppresses them, seeking opportunities to infringe their ancient customs and privileges, then he is no longer a prince but a tyrant, and the subjects are to consider him in no other view

Chronology: The Rise 1609: Twelve Years Truce recognizes an independent Dutch state in northern provinces; founding of the Bank of Amsterdam 1612: Manhattan Island settled as a Dutch colony; New Haarlem colony created

1621: The Dutch West India Company is Created; Dutch prepare for war against Spain (30 Years War) Chronology: The Height 1652: Portuguese South Africa is turned over to the VOC; origin of Afrikaaners

1640s-1660s: Series of Navigation Acts passed by British Parliament against the Dutch 1670s: French government issues first mercantilist policies directed against the Dutch and English

Why a Golden Age? SOCIAL: religious tolerance,bourgeoisie dominate POLITICAL: Mercantile oligarchy balanced by the House of Orange staatholder (military ruler); relative political freedom INTELLECTUAL: Scientific Revolution and

Enlightenment begin here CULTURE: Dutch masters painting ECONOMICS: Financial & Shipping Power Decentralized State Powerful Economy

The States General was a federal legislative body of the Dutch Republic. Believed in religious pluralism. An oligarchy of wealthy

families dominated. Stadtholder was more of a power broker with influence, no authority. Amsterdam had the largest trading fleet, banking system,

and warehousing facilities in Europe by the late 16th century. Canals built, population rose. Dutch East India company founded traded all the way to Japan.

Chronology: The Decline 1688: The Glorious Revolution in England William of Orange (Dutch) and his Scottish wife, Mary, assume the royal crown of England. 1670s 1710s: Series of commercial

wars weaken the Dutch economy & govt 1715: Treaty of Utrecht. British mercantile power eclipses the Dutch. An openness to capitalism THE TULIP INDUSTRY

An Old Jew Rembrandt van Rijn De Hoek. View of Delft,

by Vermeer. Study: Head of a Negro Rembrandt van Rijn Vermeer.

The most bourgeois of all European countries, 17th century. Vermeer. Dr. Tulps Anatomy Lesson by Rembrandt

The House of Orange balances the government. William III of Orange Science & Enligthenement Leeuewenhoek

The Microscope Baruch Spinozza, Philosopher, 1632-1677 Portuguese Jew who fled to the

Netherlands Revived medieval Islamic tolerance god is in everything, and there is one god Father of Modern religious tolerance

Emblem of The Dutch East India Company, the VOC (in Dutch) Domination of the global economy Wars of commerce: Phase I: 1652-1674 Anglo-Dutch Wars

Phase II: 1688-1715 Wars of Louis XIV 1688-1697 The Grand Alliance & The Nine Years War 1702-1714 The War of the Spanish Succession 1714 Treaties of Utrecht

Phase III: 1756-1763 Seven Years War The Girl with the Pearl Earring by Vermeer Steen

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