The Enlightenment - West Valley Central School

The Enlightenment - West Valley Central School

The Enlightenment Bellwork Complete the bellwork & then discuss Video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDdnyqy6PKg

Watch until 1:33 Transcript: The Age of Enlightenment began in Europe in the late 17th century. It would bring about fundamental changes in the way the world was understood and how societies were organized. Until then, the church had dictated [told people] what

to think and how to live. Descent [disagreeing with those in power] was punished even by death. But with the Enlightenment, people began to embrace new ideas about freedom of expression and new rational methods to investigate the world. In England, Newton made the foundations of science as we know it by showing that the universe was governed by physical laws that could be discovered using observation and reason. In philosophy, Enlightenment thinkers like Voltaire and Diderot argued that man, not God, was at the center of the

world. Ideas were beginning to change, but in the 18th century most of Europe was still [ruled by] absolute monarchs. Empowered by enlightenment thinking in both Europe and America people began to demand real change. Follow up Questions: 1. Based on the transcript and the video, what organization had the most influence on how people in Europe lived

and what they thought 2. What changes came about as a result of the Enlightenment? Causes of Enlightenment 1600s-mid 1700s Martin Luther challenged the churches

hold on power, and distributed the bible in the common language Isaac Newton used science and reason to disprove the Catholic Churches wrong claims Increased Book Production and

Literacy Johannes Guttenbergs invention of the printing press allowed for more books to be produced and literacy rates climbed

Urbanization, Salons, Coffee Houses Growing cities led to more socialization Philosophers (upper middle class) would go to coffee houses to discuss politics/religion

Salons also grew. This would be an event at an upper class persons house where guests came to listen to readings and discuss a particular topic. Day 2- Reform Movements of

the Enlightenment 1.How might women react to the ideas of the Enlightenment 2.How might supporters of the slave trade react to the Enlightenment? 3.How might Monarchs react to the ideas of the Enlightenment?

Social Reform Movements of the 18th Century 1. Womens Rights Movement 2. The Abolition Movement EIGHT ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS 1. Thomas Hobbes (1588 1679)

2. John Locke (1632 1704) 3. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712 1778) 4. Baron de Montesquieu (1689 1755) 5. Voltaire (1694 1778) 6. Denis Diderot (1713 1784) 7. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759 1797) 8. Adam Smith (1723 1790)

THOMAS HOBBES In nature, people were cruel, greedy and selfish. They would fight, rob, and oppress one another. To escape this people would enter into a social contract: they would give up their freedom in return for the safety and order of an organized society.

Therefore, Hobbes believed that a powerful government like an absolute monarchy was best for society it would impose order and compel obedience. It would also be able to suppress rebellion. Hobbes #2 His most famous work was called Leviathan.

Hobbes has been used to justify absolute power in government. His view of human nature was negative, or pessimistic. Life without laws and controls would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. JOHN LOCKE Believed in natural laws and natural rights.

At birth, the mind is a tabula rasa, a blank tablet. Everything we know comes from the experience of the senses empiricism. We are born with rights because they are a part of nature, of our very existence they come from god. At birth, people have the right to life, liberty, and property. Locke #2

Most famous works are the Two Treatises on Government. Rulers / governments have an obligation, a responsibility, to protect the natural rights of the people it governs. If a government fails in its obligation to protect natural rights, the people have the right to overthrow that government. The best government is one which is accepted by all of the people and which has limited power (Locke liked the English

monarchy where laws limited the power of the king). Locke #3 Lockes ideas influenced Thomas Jefferson more than anything else when Jefferson wrote the US Declaration of Independence in 1776. Locke justified revolution in the eyes of the Founding Fathers. Locke also influenced later revolutions in France (1789) and in many other

places in the world in the 19th Century. JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU People are basically good but become corrupted by society (like the absolute monarchy in France). For Rousseau, the social contract was the path to freedom: people should do what is best for their community.

The general will (of the people) should direct the state toward the common good. Hence, the good of the community is more important than individual interests. Rousseau #2 His most famous work was The Social Contract. JJR questioned authority - absolute monarchy and religion.

JJR was passionate, he hated political and economic oppression. Influenced later revolutionaries, both middle class and socialist. MONTESQUIEU He strongly criticized absolute monarchy and was a voice for democracy. Separation of Powers - the best way to protect liberty was to divide

the powers of government into three branches: legislative; executive; and judicial. Checks and Balances each branch of government should check (limit) the power of the other two branches. Thus, power would be balanced (even) and no one branch would be too powerful. Montesquieu studied the history of governments and cultures all over the world.

Montesquieu #2 His first book, The Persian Letters, ridiculed the absolute monarchy and social classes in France. He also wrote The Spirit of the Laws. Montesquieus separation of powers and checks and balances greatly influenced James Madison and the other framers of the

US Constitution. These ideas are at the core of American government to this day. VOLTAIRE Advocated freedom of thought, speech, politics, and religion. Fought against intolerance, injustice, inequality, ignorance, and superstition. Attacked idle aristocrats, corrupt government officials, religious prejudice, and the

slave trade. He often had to express his views indirectly through fictional characters because he lived in an absolute monarchy in France. Voltaire #2 Wrote the famous novel Candide Voltaire often used a razor sharp humor and cunning sarcasm in his writings.

He was imprisoned in the Bastille in Paris and exiled because of his attacks on the French government and the Catholic Church. Voltaires books were outlawed, even burned, by the authorities. DENIS DIDEROT This philosophe worked 25 years to produce (edit) a 28 volume Encyclopedia the first one.

The Encyclopedia was not just a collection of articles on human knowledge, it was intended to change the way people thought. Montesquieu, Voltaire, and others wrote articles. About 20,000 copies were printed between 1751 and 1789 despite efforts to ban the Encyclopedia. Diderot #2

Articles in the Encyclopedia supported freedom of expression and education for all people. The divine-right theory (of monarchy) was criticized along with traditional religions. The French king said the Encyclopedia was an attack on public morals. The pope threatened to excommunicate Catholics who bought or read the Encyclopedia.

MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT She argued that women had not been included in the Enlightenment slogan free and equal. Women had been excluded from the social contract. Her arguments were often met with scorn, even from some enlightened men. Wollstonecraft and Catherine Macaulay were British feminists. The most famous French feminist was Germaine de Stael.

Mary Wollstonecraft #2 She wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women in 1792. Wollstonecraft believed in equal education for girls and boys. Only education could give women the knowledge to participate equally with men in public life. She did argue that a womans first duty was to be a good mother. But, a woman could also decide on her own what was in her

interest without depending on her husband. ADAM SMITH Smith was a Scottish economist who has been called the father of capitalism. He was an advocate of laissez faire (French for let do, let go, let pass. often referred to as hands off.). Laissez faire was a theory of the natural laws of economics: business should

operate with little or no government interference. Adam Smith #2 He wrote The Wealth of Nations. Smith argued the free market of supply and demand should drive economies. The hidden hand of competition was the only regulation an economy needed. Wherever there was demand for goods or services, suppliers would compete with each

other to meet that demand in order to make profit. Smith did believe that government had a duty to protect society and to provide justice and public works.

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