The Fall of New France

The Fall of New France CANADIAN HISTORY 122 Map of the British and French settlements in North America before the Seven Years' War The Beginning of the End : The Seven Years War (1756-1763) The Beginning of the End: The Seven Years War

During the Seven Years War (1756-1763) the great Empires Of Europe struggled to maintain colonial territory, economic wealth and power on the European continent and in lands far removed from Europe The Fall of New France was a part of British prime minister's William Pitt master plan to fight and defeat France by use of naval power on a world wide basis When William Pitt became British prime minister in 1757 , he began to concentrate British forces on defeating France in North America. If France was gaining ground in Europe the British would focus their attention on winning war in North America William Pitt The Elder

First Ministry 1757-61 , Second Ministry 1766-68 Dominated the political scene influencing government from within and without. He is remembered for his skills as a wartime leader during the Seven Years' War Pitt was the son of a member of Parliament and the grandson of Thomas Pitt who had helped to build British trade in India French Expansion and The Thirteen Colonies New Frances expansion into the Ohio and Mississippi valleys had started in the midseventeenth century with Jean Talon

The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries During the year between 1747 and the outbreak of the Seven Years War, there were battles in the Ohio valley between the French, French Canadians, and their Aboriginal allies on the one side and the British, the militia of The Thirteen Colonies, and their aboriginal

allies on the other side Aboriginal Position o While there were still some Aboriginal groups who remained allies of the French and some who became allies of the British, other Aboriginal Peoples believed that neither the French nor the English would protect their land for them. o During the war, The Iroquois Confederacy were allied with the French. Seeing French defeat, in 1760 The Iroquois Confederacy resigned from the war and negotiated the Treaty of Kahnawake with the British. Among its conditions was

their unrestricted travel between Canada and New York, as the nations had extensive trade between Montreal and Albany o The Algonquin were interested in fighting against the Iroquois Montcalm and Vaudreuil LOUIS-JOSEPH DE MONTCALM HE JUDGED VAUDREUIL TO BE "TOO CANADIAN".MONTCALM THOUGHT THAT VAUDREUIL'S STRATEGIES WOULD NOT BE EFFECTIVE, AND THEY WERE CONTRARY TO THE EUROPEAN TRADITION OF

WAR.HE SAID THAT "IT IS NO LONGER TIME WHEN FEW SCALPS, OR THE BURNING OF A FEW HOUSES IS ANY ADVANTAGE OR EVEN AN OBJECT.PETTY MEANS,PETTY IDEAS, PETTY COUNCILS ABOUT DETAILS ARE NOW DANGEROUS AND A WASTE OF TIME". MONTCALM WANTED TO CONCETRATE FRENCH TROOPS ALONG THE INNER DEFENCES OF THE ST.LAWRENCE AND RICHELIIEU RIVERS,AND HE WANTED THE CANADIAN MILITIA INCORPORATED INTO THE REGULAR ARMY

PIERRE DE RIGAUD DE VAUDREUIL DE CAVAGNIAL, MARQUIS DE VAUDREUIL THE GOVERNER OF QUEBEC, VAUDREUIL, A NATIVE FRENCH CANADIAN, KNEW THE COUNTRY AND BELIEVED THAT HIS STRATEGIES WOULD KEEP QUEBEC FROM BEING CONQUERED BY THE BRITISH. HE WANTED TO STRENGTHEN THE CANADIAN MILITIA WITH THIRTY-SIX HUNDRED FRENCH REGULAR TROOPS, COORDINATE LARGE NUMBERS OF ABORIGINAL WAR PARTIES WITH FRENCH FORCE,AND LAUNCH SERIES OF SURPRISE GUERILLA RAIDS AT VARIOUS POINTS ALONG THE ST. LAWRENCE RIVER.

The Battles Before the Seven Years' War was officially declared, the French achieved a number of visitories against the British. They defeated British troops at Fort Duquesne, and stopped attacks at Fort Niagara and in the lake Champlain area.In the early days of the war,both Montcalm and Vaudreuil achieved more victories Montcalm was placed in supreme command of all French forces in North America In July of 1758, a British force of fifteen thousand soldiers, the largest army amassed in North America to that time, attacked Montcalm and

the French at Fort Carillon. Montcalm, with only thirty-six hundred soldiers, kept the British at bay ,though with a heavy loss of life. "The Victory of Montcalm's Troops at Carillon" by Henry Alexander Ogden The Siege of Louisbourg (8 June26 July 1758) In 1758, the British sent thirty-nine ships, more than twelve thousand troops and almost one thousand mounted guns to attack Louisbourg. The British commander, General Jeffery Amherst,

laid siege to the fort and began the bombardment. The governor of Louisbourg, Augustin de Drucour knew that his town could not hold forever. Food supplies were getting dangerously low, and the hospital had been destroyed On 26 July 1758, the French surrendered The Siege of Quebec City The bombardment of the town of Quebec began on July 12,1759 and lasted for nine weeks.

The French command were not optimistic about their chances for winning the battle for Quebec Drawing by a soldier of Wolfe's army depicting the easy climbing of Wolfe's British soldiers The Battle of the Plains of Abraham (Battle of Quebec) On the morning of 13 September, Wolfe's army formed a line first with their backs to the river, then spread out across the Plains with its right anchored by the bluff along the St. Lawrence and its left by a bluff and thick wood

above the St. Charles River. While the regular French forces were approaching from Beauport and Quebec, the Canadian militia and native sharpshooters engaged the British left flank, sheltering in the trees and scrub; the militia held these positions throughout the battle and fell back on this line during the general retreat, eventually holding the bridge over the St. Charles River During the battle were mortally wounded commanders of both armies-General Wolf and Montcalm The result of the battle was the rapid surrender of Quebec on September 18, 1759 The Capitulation of Montreal Vaudreuil decided that the war for the French colony had been lost.There was nothing to be

gained from further bloodshed and loss of life On September 8, 1760 Vaudreuil signed the Articles of Capitulation and surrendered the whole of New France to General Amherst Aftermath After the battle, most people were allowed to continue living their lives as they had before, the main legal difference being to whom taxes were payed. New France ceased to exist as a French settlement, becoming a British colony.

Land and property remained in the hands of whoever had owned it during the French rule. Pontiac's War Although fighting in Pontiac's Rebellion began in 1763, rumors reached British officials as early as 1761 that discontented Native Americans were planning an attack The war began at Fort Detroit under the leadership of Pontiac, and quickly spread throughout the region. Eight British forts were taken

Discussion questions: In your opinion, what are the reasons for the Fall of New France? In your opinion, what event was a turning point in the war between Great Britain and France in North America? Why? Do you think there is a connection between the fall of New France and Pontiac's War? Why? Bibliography/references: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteen_Colonies

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_colonial_empire http://www.canadahistory.com/sections/Eras/newfrance/thefall.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis-Joseph_de_Montcalm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontiac%27s_War

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