The Global Effort to Understand Carbon Dioxide

The Global Effort to Understand Carbon Dioxide

The Global Effort to Understand Carbon Dioxide James R. Mahoney, Ph.D. Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere NOAA Deputy Administrator Director: US Climate Change Science Program September 26, 2005 Outline

Carbon Dioxide Variability Role of Atmosphere in Carbon Cycle Role of Oceans in Carbon Cycle Role of Terrestrial Processes in Carbon Cycle Future Directions in Assessing the Carbon Cycle Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 2

Long Term Record of Atmospheric CO2 Increase in CO2 in the past 100 years is unprecedented in ~450ky Modern record shows increasing NH source throughout century Interhemispheric difference has been increasing Seasonal Cycle is largest in

NH Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 3 Atmospheric CO2 Atmospheric CO2 at Mauna Loa Observatory

Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 5 Radiative Forcing by Long-Lived Atmospheric Gases 10 Minor CFC11

CFC12 N2O CH4 CO2 RadiativeForcing (W m-2)

3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 1979 1984

1989 1994 Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 1999 2004 6

Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO/GAW) Monitoring Sites for CO2 Monitoring Stations for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 7 Courtesy of World Data Centre For Greenhouse Gases

http://gaw.kishou.go.jp/wdcgg.html Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 8 Data-Driven Interpretive Analysis: Identifying Global Sources and Sinks

Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 9 Oceanic Processes Ocean Carbon Inventory Column inventory of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean (mol m2).

High inventories are associated with deep water formation in the North Atlantic and intermediate and mode water formation between 30 and 50S. Total inventory of shaded regions is 106 17 Pg C. (From Sabine et al. 2004) Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 11 Sea-air exchange of carbon dioxide Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference

12 Terrestrial Processes Carbon Dioxide Partitioning Terrestrial biosphere takes up approximately three billion tons of human emitted carbon

dioxide per year Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 14 CO2 in Air: parts per million North Atlantic minus North Pacific Average concentrations of CO2 in marine surface air indicate

that the continent of North America could be a net sink of CO 2. Or is this a more local effect that is caused mainly by sources/ sinks in the ocean basins? Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 15 Future Directions US Effort

Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Guides and directs federal research efforts Answers emerging climate science questions addresses key climate research challenges Involves 13 Federal Agencies/Departments Overseen by Ministerial/Cabinet-level officials Operates on a ~$2B annual expenditure Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference

17 CCSP Strategic Plan (www.climatescience.g ov) Chapter 3: Atmospheric Composition Chapter 7: Carbon Cycle Chapter 12: Observing and Monitoring the Climate System

S&A Product 2.2: Will provide a synthesis and integration of the current knowledge of the North American carbon budget and its context within the global carbon cycle. In a format useful to decisionmakers Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 18 International Efforts GEOSS

Leadership in development and implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) GCOS is a major contribution to GEOSS for climate observations GEOSS supports integrated global observations of CO2 & related gases Climate Technical Reference Document (USG document) Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference

19 Charles David Keeling 19282005 Seventh International Carbon Dioxide Conference 20

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