The Industrial Revolution -

The Industrial Revolution -

The Industrial Revolution 1700-1900 Living From the Land Part 1 Living From the Land

Industrial Revolution: During the 1700s and 1800s, agricultural and industrial innovations led to profound changes in society. e.g. cloth making

A Harsh Way of Life Pre-Industrial Revolution: farming = main source of income Death rate very high

London largest city in Europe in 1750 Village Life Wealthy control village land, families rent in small strips Fair land distribution amongst peasants

Subsistence farming Coordinated farming No fences village commons Graze livestock Village Life (contd)

Self-sufficiency minimal trade from village to village Rich landowners own all

the land in the village Poorer villagers (land renters) small, dank cottages Center of life = farming Whole family contributed Early Industries

Making wool domestic system (or cottage industry) buys raw fiber Women and children clean, sort, spin Merchant collects yarn, pays, takes it to weaver Men weave Merchant pays and picks up woven cloth takes it to the fuller Fuller shapes and cleans Dyerdyes Merchant sells finished cloth or clothing

Merchant Early Industries (contd) Mining coal Coal fields = under farmland Labor = Women and

children $$$ from mining used to buy small luxuries The Beginnings of Change Part 2 The Beginnings of Change

Landowners want to end open-field system need more space for raising sheep (wool prices are high) increase efficiency, productivity Enclosure Movement

Mixing soils, crop rotation Carrot Great Britain Leads the Way Success in farming Capital to invest Capital: $ to invest in labor, machines, and raw materials Parliament passes laws to encourage

investment, growth of businesses *Natural resources harbors, rivers, coal, iron The climate damp, cool good for textiles

*Iron to make STEEL Great Britain Leads the Way Better farming = more food = more people with longer lives Farm machinery less farming jobs; farmers look for work in cities Entrepreneurs: businesspeople who set up industries by bringing together capital, labor, and new industrial inventions

Growing Textile Industries Advances in machinery John Kay flying shuttle James Hargreaves spinning jenny Richard Arkwright water frame

Samuel Crompton spinning jenny + water frame = spinning mule Growing Textile Industries (contd) Producing more cloth Edmund Cartwright power loom Eli Whitney cotton gin

Invention of the cotton gin prolongs and expands slavery in the USA The Factory System Cloth production moved out of homes (domestic system) and into large buildings (factories) near major waterways More sources of energy needed to run factories

James Watt steam engine *Set Industrial Revolution in full motion* Steam Engine Textile Factory

Industrial Developments Henry Bessemer cheap method to convert iron to steel Improvements to railways and all-weather (paved) roads Canals Robert Fulton created the first steamboat Richard Trevithick steam locomotive

George Stephensons The Rocket The Growth of Industry Part 3 Spread of Industry

Great Britain the workshop of the world Industrialization spreads to Europe and the USA France lots of scientists, but very slow-paced industrialization, few entrepreneurs, no govt support Napoleonic

Wars Germany successful industrialization United States Northeast industry Three most industrialized nations: Britain, Germany, United States Growth of Big Business

Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations (1776) Free enterprise (capitalism) Industrial capitalism continually expanding factories or investing in new businesses Mass production Eli Whitney interchangeable parts: machinemade parts that are exactly alike

Frederick Taylor division of labor: each worker performs a specialized task on an assembly line LaterHenry Ford: Model-T assembly lines Charlie Chaplin - Modern Times Growth of Big Business (contd) Organizing business

Corporations large-scale businesses owned by shareholders Stockholders and shares Like joint-stock companies was a way to reduce risk and raise capital Unlike joint-stock companies was not JUST focused on trade. More were involved in manufacturing,

railroads, etc. Became the best way to manage new businesses Science and Industry Communications

Samuel Morse, telegraph; James Clerk Maxwell, electromagnetic waves; Guglielmo Marconi, wireless telegraph/radio; Alexander Graham Bell, telephone Electricity Thomas

Edison phonograph, incandescent light bulbs A New Society Part 4 The Rise of the Middle Class Before industrialization: bankers, lawyers, doctors, merchants After: as well as owners of factories,

mines, railroads, stockbrokers, middle management of companies Education = very important but not yet available to all The Rise of the Middle Class (contd) Middle-class lifestyles gender gap

Men = sole providers for family Women hired servants, educated children, sewed, planned meals Growth of magazines Boys

went to school Girls learned domestic tasks marriage Lives of the Working Class At the mercy of machinery Division of labor same tasks over and over Lost limbs

Rigid schedules 10-14 hours per day Very low wages Lives of the Working Class Workers lives Children high possibility of becoming crippled or ill as a result of factory conditions

Women gained some independence Mill girls Upon marriage, many were fired Cold, crowded tenements with high rent

Poor hygiene cholera, typhoid High infant mortality rate Lives of the Working Class Workers unite Labor

unions associations dedicated to representing the interests of workers in a specific industry Union tactics Strikes, sit-down strikes Opposed by employers

Parliament Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800 prohibited the formation of labor unions 1820s workers can meet to discuss working hours, wages. 1871 trade unions/strikes made legal. Collective bargaining union leaders and an employer meet to discuss problems and reach an agreement Membership continued to grow in Europe, U.S.

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