The Kerr Effect is over 100 years old!

The Kerr Effect is over 100 years old!

CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Ultrafast Terahertz Kerr Effect Spectroscopy of Aromatic Liquids Ian Finneran, Marco Allodi, Geoffrey Blake California Institute of Technology The Kerr Effect is over 100 years old! DC Kerr Effect ~ms-ns Optical (AC) Kerr Effect ~fs

E +V n n n = n0 + n n n n E2 1875 John Kerr

1963 Mayer, Gires, Maker, Terhune, Savage The Kerr Effect is Useful for Chemistry Dynamic Kerr Effect (<0.1 THz) Optical Kerr Effect (~375 THz) H 2O

(t ) Beevers, M. S., et al. Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 2: Molecular and Chemical Physics (1976) (t ) Bartolini, Paolo, et al. Springer 2008. 73-127. The intermediate response is not fully understood Short Response (Electronic) Long Response (Collective Reorientation)

Intermediate Response Nonlinear THz spectroscopy is very difficult! Electronics Sizov, Fedir F., et al. Optical Engineering 52.3 (2013) Lasers (Photonics) Terahertz Kerr Effect: Nelson Lab 2009 Picosecond dynamics

E n n = n + nn n n E2 Hoffmann, Matthias C., et al. "Terahertz Kerr effect." Applied Physics Letters 95.23 (2009): 231105. Terahertz Kerr Effect: Nelson Lab 2009 Hoffmann, Matthias C., et al. "Terahertz Kerr effect." Applied Physics Letters95.23 (2009): 231105. THz Kerr Effect - Experimental Setup REGENERATIVE

AMPLIFIER (Coherent Legend) Ti:S 800 nm 1 kHz >4 mJ 35 fs = 1450 nm = 800 nm = THz fs Ti:Sa OSCILLATOR

Ti:S 80 MHz ~ 5 nJ DSTMS THz EMITTER B.S. 85:15 OPA Signal 1450 nm 400 JJ

DETECTION DELAY LINE OPTICAL BEAM BLOCK POLLENS /4 SAMPLE DETECTION PHOTODIODE WOLLASTON PRISM

Allodi, Finneran, & Blake, 2015 under review. THz Kerr Effect - Experimental Setup DSTMS THz EMITTER OPTICAL BEAM BLOCK WIRE-GRID POLARIZER POL / 2

LENS SAMPLE DETECTION PHOTODIODES / 4 WOLLASTON PRISM Allodi, Finneran, & Blake, 2015 under review. Image Credits: Rainbowphotonics.com

Electronic Orientational The Instrument Response is over after 2 ps Probe Pulse = ~40 fs The Orientational Response is Dependent on Structure Intermediate Response is clear near 5 ps Hexafluorobenzene: a double exponential is needed to fit data

TKE tor= 13.88(5) ps tint= 2.15(5) ps Aor = 0.57(1) 2 =6.6 Aor=1-Aint

OKE [1] tor= 13.3(1) ps tint= 2.9(1) ps Aor = 0.88 2 =1.0 Ratio

tor: 1.1 tint: 0.8 Aor: 0.7 [1] Loughnane, Brian J., Alessandra Scodinu, and John T. Fourkas. "Temperature-dependent optical Kerr effect spectroscopy of aromatic liquids." The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 110.11 (2006): 5708-5720. Conclusions TKE is likely complementary to OKE. There is an intermediate TKE response. Need more modeling!! For all samples studied:

Acknowledgments NSF The Blake Group

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