The Language of Medicine A Write-in Text Explaining Medical ...

The Language of Medicine A Write-in Text Explaining Medical ...

Chapter 1 Objectives Identify basic objectives to guide your study of the medical language Divide medical words into their component parts Learn the meanings of basic combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes of the medical language. Use these combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes to build medical words. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Basic Word Structure Chapter 1 Pages 1 32 2 Pages 2 3

Objectives in Studying the Medical Language 1. Analyze words by dividing them into component parts 2. Relate the medical terms to the structure and function of the human body 3. Be aware of spelling and pronunciation problems Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3 Pages 3 6 Word Analysis Root = the foundation of the word Suffix = the word ending Prefix

= beginning of the word Combining vowel (usually o) = it joins one word part to another. Combining form = the root plus the combining vowel. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4 Pages 3 6 Word Analysis (Contd) Three general rules: 1. READ from the suffix beginning and across 2. DROP the combining vowel if suffix begins with a vowel

3. gastritis gastroitis KEEP combining vowel between two roots gastroenterology gastrenterology Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5 Pages 3 6 Word Analysis (Contd) Gastritis Root: gastr = stomach Combining vowel: none Suffix: itis = inflammation means inflammation of the stomach means process of study of Gastroenterology the stomach and intestines Root: gastr = stomach Root: enter = intestines Combining vowel: o Suffix: logy = process of study Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

6 Pages 3 6 Word Analysis (Contd) hematology Root: hemat = blood Combining vowel: o Suffix: logy = process of study means process of study of blood Electrocardiogram Root: electr = electricity Root: cardi = heart Combining vowel: o Suffix: gram = record means record of the electricity in the heart Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7 Pages 3 6 Word Analysis (Contd) Hypogastric Prefix: hypo = below

Root: gastr = stomach Suffix: ic = pertaining to Epigastric Prefix: epi = above Root: gastr = stomach Suffix: ic = pertaining to means pertaining to below the stomach means pertaining to above the stomach Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8 Chapter 1 Pronunciation of Terms When is above a vowel, the sound is long. For example: as in pe as in pen

When is above a vowel, the sound is short. For example: as in pple as in pt The capitalized syllable is accented. Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9 Chapter 1 Pronunciation of Terms Examples adenitis d--N-ts biology b-OL--j cephalic

se-FL-k iatrogenic i-t-r-JN-k resection r-SK-shn Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10 Page 7 Combining Forms Combining Form Meaning aden/o gland arthr/o bi/o joint life carcin/o cardi/o

cancerous, cancer heart cephal/o head Example adenoma, adenitis arthritis biology biopsy carcinoma cardiology cephalic Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11 Page 8 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Form cerebr/o cis/o crin/o cyst/o

Meaning Example cerebrum (largest part of the brain) to cut to secrete (to form and give off) urinary bladder (a sac, cyst, or sac containing fluid) cerebral incision, excision endocrine gland cystoscopy Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12 Page 9 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Form Meaning Example

cyt/o derm/o, dermat/o cell skin electr/o encephal/o enter/o electricity brain intestines (usually small intestine) red erythrocyte stomach gastrectomy, gastrotomy erythr/o gastr/o cytology dermatitis, hypodermic electrocardiogram electroencephalogram intestines Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

13 Page 10 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Form glyc/o gnos/o Example sugar knowledge gynec/o hemat/o, hem/o hepat/o iatr/o Meaning hyperglycemia diagnosis, prognosis woman, female gynecology blood hematology, hematoma, hemoglobin liver hepatitis treatment,

iatrogenic physician Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14 Pages 10 11 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Form leuk/o log/o nephr/o neur/o onc/o ophthalm/o oste/o path/o ped/o Meaning white study of kidney nerve tumor (cancerous) eye bone disease

child Example leukocyte dermatology nephritis, nephrology neurology oncology, oncologist ophthalmoscope osteitis, osteoarthritis pathology, pathologist pediatric, orthopedist Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15 Page 12 Combining Forms (Contd) Combining Form Meaning psych/o mind radi/o ren/o rhin/o sarc/o

sect/o thromb/o ur/o x-rays kidney nose flesh to cut clot, clotting urinary tract, urine Example psychology, psychiatrist radiology renal rhinitis sarcoma resection thrombocyte urologist Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16 Page 13 Suffixes Suffix

Meaning -ac, -al, -ic, ical -algia -cyte -ectomy -emia -genic -globin Example pertaining to cardiac, neural, gastric, neurologic pain arthralgia, neuralgia cell erythrocyte excision, removal nephrectomy blood condition leukemia produced by or in carcinogenic, (producing) pathogenic, iatrogenic protein hemoglobin Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

17 Pages 13 14 Suffixes (Contd) Suffix -gram -ion -ist -itis -logy -oma -opsy -osis Meaning record process specialist inflammation process of study tumor, mass, swelling process of viewing condition, usually abnormal Example

electroencephalogram excision ophthalmologist cystitis endocrinology hepatoma biopsy nephrosis, leukocytosis Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18 Page 14 Suffixes (Contd) Suffix Meaning -pathy disease condition -scope instrument to visually examine process of visually examining state of; condition process of cutting,

incision process, condition -scopy -sis -tomy -y Example enteropathy, adenopathy endoscope endoscopy, colonoscopy prognosis osteotomy gastroenterology Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 19 Pages 14 15 Prefix a-, anaut-, autodiaendoepiex-, exohyper Prefixes Meaning Example

no, not, without self, own complete, through within above, upon anemia autopsy diagnosis endocrinologist epigastric, out, outside of, epidermis outward excision, excessive, above, exocrine glands more than hyperthyroidism normal Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 20 Pages 14 15 Prefix hypoinperiproreretrosubtrans- Prefixes (Contd) Meaning

deficient, below, under, less than normal into, in surrounding, around before, forward back, backward, again behind below, under across, through Example hypogastric, hypoglycemia incision pericardium prostate gland resection retrocardiac subhepatic transhepatic Copyright 2017, 2014, 2011, 2007 Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 21

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Some Landmark Judgments of Supreme Court on Direct Taxes

    Some Landmark Judgments of Supreme Court on Direct Taxes

    The obiter dicta of the Supreme Court should be followed by the High Courts; but where they are in conflict with the ratio of the same or another decision of the Supreme Court, the ratio should be followed in preference...
  • Measuring & manipulating coherence in photonic & atomic

    Measuring & manipulating coherence in photonic & atomic

    DRAMATIS PERSONAE Toronto quantum optics & cold atoms group: Postdocs: Morgan Mitchell ( ICFO) Matt Partlow An-Ning Zhang Optics: Rob Adamson Kevin Resch( Zeilinger ) Lynden(Krister) Shalm Masoud Mohseni ( Lidar) Xingxing Xing Jeff Lundeen ( Walmsley) Atoms: Jalani Fox...
  • Textual Features for Programming by Example

    Textual Features for Programming by Example

    A Machine Learning Framework for Programming by Example. by. Aditya Menon, UCSD/NICTA. Santosh Vempala, Georgia Tech. Omer Tamuz, Weizmann. Sumit Gulwani, MSR
  • Biosensor for Detecting Mycotoxins in Grains Sundaram Gunasekaran

    Biosensor for Detecting Mycotoxins in Grains Sundaram Gunasekaran

    CNTs could be functionalized with various functional groups, giving the potential for antibody, protein immubolization. Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991, it has emerged as one of the most promising materials for the development of nanoscale biosensors....
  • Bible Basics  Biblia  Inspired Word of God  Different

    Bible Basics Biblia Inspired Word of God Different

    Bible Basics Biblia Inspired Word of God Different kinds of truth The Inerrancy of the Bible Inerrancy Strict inerrancy Limited inerrancy Canon Septuagint Testament ...
  • Etwinning 2006 Elefsina-Perugia

    Etwinning 2006 Elefsina-Perugia

    Times New Roman Comic Sans MS Arial Προεπιλεγμένη σχεδίαση Bitmap Image Etwinning 2006 Elefsina-Perugia Παρουσίαση του PowerPoint Παρουσίαση του PowerPoint Παρουσίαση του PowerPoint Παρουσίαση του PowerPoint Παρουσίαση του PowerPoint Παρουσίαση ...
  • Project Title (Project Number)

    Project Title (Project Number)

    CNA will work with the NNAR participating States to determine the numbers of false positives versus the numbers of actual matches to individual applicants improve the best approach to the NNAR search capability.
  • Announcements  Final is Wednesday, May 11, at 5:30-7:30

    Announcements Final is Wednesday, May 11, at 5:30-7:30

    Heat Transfer via Conduction. Quiz - The demo apparatus consists of five rods made of iron, aluminum, brass, stainless steel, and copper. The rods all have the same length and diameter. Each rod has a wax candle stuck on the...