The life and death of Julius Caesar - York Region District ...
The Life and Death of Julius Caesar By; Michelle, Megan, and Melissa Family Background Julius was born to Aurelia and Gaius Julius Caesar approx. July 12, 100 BCE His family had noble roots, even though they were neither rich nor influential His father died around 85 BCE. The month that Caesar was born
was renamed July in his honour. The Early Years He was betrothed and possibly married a wealthy young woman, Cossutia. When he was 18 his betrothal was suddenly broken off, and he married the daughter of a member of the Popular faction, Cornelia. They had a child named Julia. She was
Caesars only legitimate child. Caesar was forced to go into hiding when the Optimate dictator, Sulla, ordered him to divorce his wife and he refused. He was eventually pardoned. When Sulla died in 78 BCE, Caesar returned to Rome to begin a career as an orator and lawyer. He was awarded the civic crown for saving the life of a citizen in battle. Pirates of 75 BCE Caesar was kidnapped on his way to Greece by Cilician Pirates. When he was told that they meant to ask for 20 talents for his return, he insisted
that he was worth 50. He maintained a friendly relationship with the pirates but warned them that he would find and crucify them after his release. Upon his release he kept true to his promise and tracked the pirates down with the help of volunteers. However he slit their throats before their crucifixion because they had treated him well. Alliances are formed
In 72 BCE he was elected to military tribune. His wife Cornelia passed away in 69 BCE and he remarried Pompeia, the granddaughter of Sulla. In 68/67 BCE Caesar was elected into the Senate. 63 BCE he divorced Pompeia because she was seeing another man. 60 BCE the first Triumvirate was formed. The men that formed the Triumvirate were Caesar, Pompey the Great, and Marcus Crassus. Caesar married his daughter to Pompey the Great to strengthen their alliance. Caesar married Calpurnia. His daughter died in 54 BCE in childbirth. Triumvirate Falls
Crassus was killed by the Parthians in 54 BCE. In 52 BCE Pompey moves to Optimate faction because without Julia and Crassus there is nothing that links Pompey to Caesar. In 49 BCE Pompeys legions were in Spain Caesar declared himself dictator in Rome Caesar then lead his own legions to Spain to head off Pompeys forces. He allegedly said Im off to meet an army without a leader. When I return I shall meet a leader without an army. He than returned to Rome where he was elected consul, which legalized his position. Mid life Power
48BCE Caesar travelled to meet Pompey and his men, however he did not have enough ships to transport all his men. He crossed anyways, and upon their landing, found themselves greatly outnumbered. Pompeys 46,000 men and Caesars 21,000 fought on the plains of Pharsalus, with Caesars generalship leading them to victory. He pardoned all Roman citizens who were captured, including Brutus. Pompey escaped, and fled to Egypt. Military Expansion
October 2, 48 BCE Caesar landed in Alexandria and was presented with Pompeys head. Here he was approached by Cleopatra and asked to help put her on the Egyptian throne. By June 23, 47 BCE, Cleopatra had been established as a client ruler in alliance with Rome. Caesar left Rome, and either immediately after or before his departure, Cleopatra gave birth to a son, Caesarion, who she claimed belonged to Caesar. Caeser travelled thorugh Asia Minor and settled the disturbances there, including those made by Pharnaces, a rebellious King. It was after defeating Pharnaces that Caesar coined the phrase veni, vidi, Celebration and Revolution
When he arrived back in Rome he settled the problems that were caused by Antonys mismanagement July 25, 46 BCE the unchallenged Caesar celebrated four splendid triumphs, over Gauls, Egyptians, Pharnaces, and Juba, and he sent for Cleopatra. Although he nominally used the political structure, at times he simply would announce his decisions to the Senate and had them entered on the record without debate of vote., because he was holding the position of dictator. April, 45 BCE the son of Pompey led a revolt in Spain and Caesar had to go himself to gain victory. Death
March 15, 44BCE Caesar attended the last meeting of the Senate before he was scheduled to depart to lead a military campaign against the Parthinians. Sixty conspirators also attended, with concealed daggers in the togas, and struck Caesar no less than 23 times as he stood at the base of Pompeys statue. This is where Caesar said the famous phrase Et tu, Brutus? The conspirators didnt think to also kill Mark Antony, who had a whole legion behind him, as well as the keys to Caesars money boxes and his will. Historical Importance
Caesars death marked the end of the Roman Republic, and the beginning of the Roman Empire. The Second Triumvirate was formed as well, giving power to both Marc Antony, and Caesars son, Octavian. Octavian defeated Marc Antony, who at this time was married to Cleopatra (who had also had a relationship with Caesar) and the two committed suicide together, leaving Octavian as the leader of the Roman Empire, which would last until 400 CE. Caeser was a skilled general, and his leadership helped Rome gain more land. His rule as a dictator lasted over ten years, although many of his decisions were made without the decision of the senate.
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