The Mask of Janus ILLEGAL DRUGS: Policy, Politics & Prejudice C.S.J. Fazey Visiting Professor of International Drug Policy School of Law and Social Justice Department of Sociology, Social Policy and Criminology University of Liverpool
Janus the Roman god who looked two ways at once Basic premise of this lecture: Governments have consistently supported one policy whilst encouraging or even actively pursuing its opposite Evidence well-researched & available but I also bring a
unique personal perspective through years of face-toface experience on the international stage Personal Perspective 45 years experience in the field Started research into heroin addicition and treatment in 1966 1990-1998: UN International Drug Control Programme, Vienna
First Chief of Demand Reduction Inter-regional Advisor on Demand Reduction Drafted UN Declaration on Guilding Principles of Demand Reduction Led Secretariat to steer Declaration through UN system to its approval by the General Assembly in 1998 The Shanghai Conference, 1909
First attempt to control opium trade Theoretically supposed to save Chinese & Filipino people from evils of opium use But underlying reality was US desire to break near-monopoly of UK on trade with China Hague Convention 1912-14
First international attempt to control production & movement of narcotic drugs Ratified by being added to the Treaty of Versailles at end of First World War UK largely ignored the treaty Geneva meeting to resolve issues led to Geneva Convention of 1924 Unintended consequence cannabis ban
damaged rope-making (and UK trade) Allied invasion of Sicily 1943 Facilitated by Lucky Luciano & Mafia to ensure minimal US casualties Mafia had been successfully suppressed by Mussolini US rewarded Luciano by allowing Mafia to
re-establish its power Meyer Lansky then established Mafias international banking network The French Connection US fears after Communists won local power in Marseiile US supported Union Corse to break
strikes and fix elections Les Barbouze gangsters became virtually immune from prosecution Set up French Connection drug production and trafficking network All downhill from here
French in Viet Nam US in Viet Nam Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Insurgents paid via opium farming Asia becomes worlds largest producer of illegal opium / heroin Trade in illegal opium/heroin & cannabis goes global Cannabis in mass production Happy workers in Kandahars
largest industry Scraping a living in Helmland Transportation logistics to the fore Buy a commercial pleasure
Submarine. or build your own in the jungle Pedigree pups are turned into mules Afghanistan:
An alternative view Methodological implications What does it mean to study a Janus-faced phenomena, one that points in many directions and presents many different faces at once?
Taking opium/heroin as the example, understanding the present situation means tracing the activities of buyers, sellers, governments and the shifting relationships between them in and across a range of different contexts as they have developed over time The methodological approach is therefore simultaneously synchronic and diachronic
Methodological implications Analytically this means examining such things as: National, international and supranational politics The influence of events (such as the unforeseen shifts in alliances that accompanied processes of colonisation and decolonisation) And the role of national intelligence agencies,
organised crime and war, and much more besides It is only when armed with this wealth of data from different levels that it is possible to map the complex spatial, temporal and political formations that serve to channel the flow of heroin/opium from producers in nations such as Afghanistan to consumers in Europe and North America.
Methodological implications In tracking a phenomenon that presents different faces and extends over space and time, extensive archival and investigative research is crucial as is gaining access to first-hand experience (personally or through others) An area as complex as drug trade and drug policy
requires investigators to have the breadth of knowledge to pursue the ways in which developments in different domains reciprocally influence each other in unpredictable ways. Methodological implications Not isolated researchers but part of an international group whose work offers
sources of confirmation/disconfirmation Important to recognise the strange politics of research: declassified US documents as a set of clues for reconstructing greater wholes
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