The Middle East: A Brief Modern History

The Middle East: A Brief Modern History

History of the Middle East The Cradle of Civilization Arabian Peninsula: Known as one of the Cradles of Civilization Birthplace of the worlds first civilizations Sumerians Mesopotamians Babylonians Assyrians Phoenicians Egyptians Islamic Empires In the centuries after the rise of Islam, Muslim armies conquered: Dark Red Light Red Yellow Muslim empires were called Caliphates 5 total from 632-1517

The Ottoman Empire Centered around modern-day Turkey Osman I consolidated power in late 13th century At height, Ottoman Empire encompassed: Ottoman Empire Expansion European Expansion By the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire known as the "sick man of Europe French annexed Algeria in 1830 & Tunisia in 1878 French extended their influence into Lebanon and Syria British occupied Egypt and Cyprus in 1882 British took control of the Persian Gulf and supported Arab revolts against the Ottomans in the Arabian Peninsula Italians seized Libya in 1912 Ottomans turned to Germany to protect them from

Europe World War I Effect on Middle East Central Powers: (Ottoman Empire, Germany, and Austro-Hungarian Empire) VS. Allied Powers (Britain, France, Italy, USA) Result: Allies Win! Post World War I Mandate system in the Middle East: Supervisory control Great Britain: Iraq, Palestine, Transjordan

France: Syria & Lebanon Arab Independence Nationalist movements in the Middle East lead to some independence: Egypt (1922) Turkey (1923) Iraq (1932) Saudi Arabia (1932) Iran (1935) However the Western powers have influence in the Middle East! World War II and Holocaust

Allied Powers England France VS. Russia United States Axis Powers Germany Austria Japan Italy (19401943) Holocaust Impact: By 1945, approximately 6 million Jews had been killed across Europe! Outcome: A direct outcome of the Holocaust in the Middle East The Creation of Israel Britain steps up plans to create Jewish Homeland Jewish settlers and Arab groups begin armed attacks versus British occupation

United Nations Partition Plan of 1947 Jews approve of UN Partition Plan Arab population does not approve Britain turns mandate over to United Nations & withdraws from Palestine on May 14, 1948 David Ben-Gurion, leader of Jewish settlers, declares the state of Israel on May 15, Egypt Mohamed Ali Pasha founder of modern Egypt in 1805 Independence 1922 from Great Britain 1952 EgyptianinRevolution: military coup d'tat; abolished the constitutional monarchy and establish a republic Gamal Abdel Nasser: 2nd President of Egypt (1956-1970);

leader of Arab nationalism in Middle East, Anwar Al Sadat: 3rd President of Egypt (1970-1981); first Arab leader to recognize Israel; assassinated in 1981 Hosni Mubarak: 4th President of Egypt (1981-2011); forged peace with Israel, alliance with U.S., overthrown during 2011 Arab Spring Current Government: Presidential Republic Current Leader: Mohamed Morsi 2011 GDP Rank: 42nd Turkey Ottoman Empire from 1200s to 1920 1919-1923 Turkish War of Independence 1923 Republic of Turkey created Mustafa Kemal Ataturk: military commander, founder, and 1st President Bosporus: where Europe meets Asia Establishes a secular

constitution Modernizes and Industrializes Turkey 1960, 1971, 1980, 1996: military intervenes to enforce secular constitution 2012: example of a working democracy in the Middle East; Current Government: Parliamentary Republic Current Leader: Recep Tayyip Iraq Former territory of Ottoman Empire 1920 placed under authority of Great Britain as a mandate (result of WWI) 1932 gained independence

from Britain Kingdom of Iraq (Monarchy) 1958 monarchy overthrown; Republic of Iraq est. led by Baath Party (Shiite) 1979 Saddam Hussein becomes president declares war on Iran (Iraq-Iran War) Kurdish Genocide: killing of 50,000-100,000 Kurds by Saddams Current Government: Constitutional Republic Current Leader: Nouri al- Saudi Arabia Unification of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia took place in 1932

1938 oil reserves were discovered along the Persian Gulf 1941 full-scale development of oil fields began Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Economic prosperity followed King Abdul Aziz bin Saud becomes first king in 1953 1976 becomes largest oil producer in the worldGovernment: Absolute Monarchy Current - Nations is under Sharia Law (strict Islamic Law) Current Leader: King Abdullah bin Iran Persia from 550 B.C. to 1935

Reza Khan: army officer and nationalist who sizes control of Persia in 1921 1935 officially changes name to Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi: Shah of Iran from 1941-1979; modernizes Iran 1979 Iranian Revolution: Ayatollah Khomeini overthrows Shah and establishes an Islamist Govt. 1979 Iranian Hostage Crisis Islamist students storm U.S. embassy in Tehran and held 52 Current Government: Theocratic Republic - Constitution includes Sharia Law Current Leader:

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Leban on Former territory of Ottoman Empire Post-WWI mandate of France 1943granted independence by France 1975-1990 Lebanese Civil War: Maronite Christians supported by Israel and the West vs. Arab nationalists, Muslims, and Palestinians supported by Soviets Arab League leads Taif Accords

Outcome:120,000 deaths & 1 million wounded 2006 Conflict with Israel Hezbollah bases located in Lebanon Current Government: Republic Current Leader: Najib Miqati 2011 GDP Rank: 87th Syri a Former territory of Ottoman Empire Post-WWI mandate of France 1946 granted independence by France 1958-1961 United Arab Republic (united as one nation with Egypt) 1970 Hafiz al-Asad overthrows govt. in a bloodless coup 2000 Bashar al-Asad (son) Current Government:

becomes president Authoritarian Republic March 2011-Present Syrian Civil Current Leader: War: rebels revolt against govt. Bashar al-Asad 2011 GDP Rank: 69th Jordan Former territory of Ottoman Empire Post-WWI mandate of Great Britain called Transjordan 1946 granted independence by France named Jordan King Hussein: 1st king of Jordan (1953-1999) King Abdullah II: (son) becomes Current Government:

king (1999-present) Constitutional economic & political reforms Monarchy 2011 Arab Spring Current Leader: brings political 7 judiciary reforms King Abdullah II The United Arab Emirates 1500s to 1971 under British control 1960 oil is discovered 1971 gained independence Burj Khalifa, Dubai The U.A.E. is: federation of seven monarchies each with their own emir 7th largest oil reserves in the world 7th largest natural gas reserves in the world 7th highest per capita GDP Ranked as a Developing economy Current Government: Federal Monarchy Current Leader:

Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan Kuwait 1800s-1918 territory of Ottoman Empire 1918-1961 becomes a British protectorate Sheikh rules govt. (British control foreign policy) 1930s oil is discovered Economy based off pearling prior 1961 granted independence Additional Info: 1990 invaded by Iraq (Result: Persian Gulf War) 2010-2011 Arab Spring: only small minor protests 5th largest oil reserves in the world Oil accounts for 90% of Kuwaits exports

Current Government: Constitutional Monarchy Current Leader: Sabah Al-Ahmad AlJaber Al-Sabah Yemen Oman Former territory of Ottoman Empire 1839 South Yemen is a British protectorate 1918 North Yemen

gains independent 1967 South Yemen gains independence 1990 Yemen united as one country South fights to separate from North (1994, 2004, 2008, 2010) Arab Spring: protests against President Saleh leads to violence; demands leader steps down Outcome: 2012 transfers power to Current Government: VP; new constitution being written; Presidential Republic new elections 2014 Current Leader: Terrorist training grounds located

Abd Rabbuh Mansur alin Yemen Hadi Never under control of Ottoman Empire Never a colony of Britain or France - 1700s Friendship treaties with Britain 1970 Qaboos bin Said Al-Said overthrows his father; rules as sultan - Modernizes Oman; opens Oman to outside world 2011 Arab Spring: demonstrations for economic and political reforms - Council of Oman given power to draft, amend, and Current Government: approve legislation

Islamic Absolute Monarchy Current Leader: Qaboos bin Said Al-Said 2011 GDP Rank: 77th Bahrain Qatar 1820-1971 British protectorate Sheikh rules locally (appointed by British) 1932 discovery of oil Oil accounts for 11% of GDP (2012)

Oil is 60% of Bahrains exports (2012) 1971 gained independence Additional info: Arab Spring: protests = no changes Diversified economy (communication, transportation, construction, finance) Current Government: Constitutional Monarchy Current Leader: Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa 2011 GDP Rank: 91th 1871-1916 ruled by Ottoman Empire

1916-1971 British protectorate Economy based on pearling 1940 beginning of oil & natural gas industry Oil accounts for 50% of Qatars GDP Natural Gas: 3rd most in world (13% of world total) 1971 gained independence Additional info: 2nd highest per capita income in world Current Lowest Government: unemployment rate in the world Constitutional Monarchy Current Home Leader: to Al Jazirah television network Hamad bin Khalifa Al

Thani 2011 GDP Rank: 58th Afghanist an Fact: stan means founded land of 1747 modern Afghanistan Mid-1800s British expand influence from Pakistan Durand Line creates boundary between Afghanistan and Pakistan dividing Pashtuns. Ethnic Outcome: Various rival ethnic groups together as one groups: nation by the British 42% = Pashtun 27% = Tajik 9% =

Hazara 9% = n u t h Pa s s d n La 1919 gains independence from British influence 1978 communist govt. created Mujahideen fighters (Muslim Afghan opposition youth groups trained in Pakistan) 1979-1989 Soviet Union invasion of Afghanistan (Soviets defeated) 1989-1996 Afghan Civil War = Taliban 1996-2001 Taliban rule of seizes control of Afghanistan

Afghanistan Taliban (Islamic militant political group created Strictfor Islamic law = Human from religious schools Afghan refugees in rights violations Pakistan) Al-Qaeda based in Afghanistan since 1997 2001 Operation Enduring

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