Pre-class What is more diverse, the United States or the Middle East? Why? The Middle East
Chapter 25 Where is the Middle East? The region was named by Europeans comparing where they lived to Asia, the far east. Middle Eastern culture is in Northern Africa and Southwestern Asia
The Crossroads of the World The region connects Africa, Asia, Europe It became a trade crossroads over land and water Goods would travel across Asia through the Middle East Across the Mediterranean to Europe
Down the Red Sea to East Africa The Crossroads: Even Today Military and Economic Positions Commands major sea routes Suez Canal: Mediterranean to the Red Sea to Indian Ocean Bosporus and the Dardanelles Strait of Hormuz: mouth of the Persian
Gulf Oil Diffusion People The population
Ethnic Groups Arabs, Persians, Kurds, Pakistanis, Afghans, Jews, Turks Total in Middle East 197,090,443 Languages Arabic and Persian are most common Population Denisty for Israel
Outsourced Stereotypes American Indian Cultural Differences American Indian
Religion Islam Judaism Christianity Goods/Trade/Inventions Our Alphabet
Iron Making Sails Pre-Class What ethnic groups live in the Middle East? What are the predominant language groups in the ME? Name three monotheistic religions
that began in the Middle East Major Regions The Northern Tier Across Turkey and Iran Anatolian Plateau: ringed by mountains, fertile region, supports farming, large population
Iranian Plateau: ringed by mountains, dry region, no farming, small population Arabian Peninsula About 1/3 the size of the United States Borders major bodies of water Small population b/c most of it is a
desert Major role in world economy OIL Home of Islam Fertile Crescent
Arc-shaped region Mediterranean Tigris & Euphrates Persian Gulf Fertile Crescent
Home to first civilizations: Mesopotamia Few natural barriers led to being conquered often throughout history Region floods unpredictably in spring or summer Too much=disaster; too little=drought Nile Valley
Geographic Advantages Ample natural barriers Deserts in the east and west Predictable & dependable flooding The Maghreb Maghreb means Western Isle in Arabic
Northern Africa People concentrated near Mediterranean Coast Small population in Sahara and Atlas Mtns Climate & Resources High Population Density in well-watered areas <10% of the land is farmable
Resourceful irrigators since early civilizations Salt, phosphate, & copper = major resources Uneven oil distribution creates economic disparity Early Civilizations
Sumerians The first civilization in the Middle East Collection of city-states
Polytheistic religion Built Ziggurats Writing was called cuneiform The Babylonians Conquered the fertile crescent King Hammurabi wrote a code of laws Minor laws Major laws
Hammurabi's Code Hammurabis Law One of 1st written set of laws Posted in public for people to see Most of the nearly 300
laws written on the pillar pertain to property rights of landowners, slavemasters, merchants, and builders. The Hittites Conquered the Fertile Crescent from the Northern Tier
Used iron weapons Spread their culture through warfare The Phoenicians Set up city states along the Mediterranean Created the alphabet that evolved into what we use today Diffusion spread the alphabet across the Middle East
The Persians The largest empire - Turkey to Indus River Divided the empire into provinces and each province had a governor (Satrap) Created roadways to encourage trade Used coins for money The Romans and Greeks
Blended Middle Eastern Culture with European Culture Alexander the Great united the two regions The Romans spread the culture west as far away as England Early Civs Chart Civilization
Mediterranean Coast Persian Iran; across Fertile Crescent
Accomplishments Development of Religion in the Middle East First religions Polytheistic animism (all parts of nature) Judaism monotheism 5717 years old 10 commandments Torah prophets
Christianity monotheism 2010 years old Based on Jesus Bible prophets Judaism 562 1. How did Judaism differ from other early religions? 2. Who is the father of Judaism?
3. What are the best known Jewish laws? 4. What was promised to the Jews? 5. What is the remaining wall of the temple called? Why is it important? 6. What is a Diaspora? 7. Define prophet
8. What do Jews believe about the Messiah? 9. What are 3 Jewish Holidays? What do they celebrate? 1. Christianity 565 1. Out of what religion did Christianity grow 2. How do Christian beliefs
about Jesus differ from other religions? 3. How is the bible divided? What are the parts called? 4. Why are the resurrection and ascension important to Christians? 5. Why were Christians persecuted?
6. Why did Christianity appeal to people? Why did it spread? 7. What is the eastern Orthodox Christian Church? 8. What are 3 Christian Holidays? What do they Celebrate Judaism
The first monotheistic religion The land they lived on was called Judea; today it is Israel King David, military general, and King Solomon, wisdom and peace, were two of the greatest leaders Jewish power ended when the Persians conquered their land 70 AD a Jewish revolt against the Romans forced
Jews from their lands (Diaspora) Video questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Who was Abraham? What was the exodus? Why were Jews persecuted? What are the basic Jewish teachings? Why is Jerusalem a sacred city? What are 2 important Jewish celebrations or holidays? 7. What is Passover?
Christianity Christianity grew out of Jewish traditions Jesus was born in Israel when it was ruled by the Romans Some people saw Jesus as the messiah, others saw him as a trouble maker Christianity stressed compassion for others using parables, stories with moral
lessons The spread of Christianity Christianity appealed to people because it offered hope and eternal life to rich and poor People could make their own choices to impact their salvation The trade routes of the Romans helped
Abraham Monotheism Diaspora Crossroads of the World Why was the Middle East called the crossroads of the world? Why is the Arabian
Peninsula home to a small population? Describe two achievements of early Middle Eastern Civilizations Why did Christianity spread so rapidly?
List two continents connected
by the Middle East List 3 ethnic groups that are native to the Middle East What innovation made the Hittites so powerful? What is the major geographic feature of the Maghreb? How do the Old and New Testaments differ?
Why did the Romans persecute the Jews and Christians? Why did Christianity appeal to people? Identifications Oasis Peninsula
Strait Ziggurat Cuneiform Parable Martyr Pope Ten Commandments
Gospels Identifications Western Wall Carriers of Civilization Hittites Byzantine Church
First Civilization Torah
Abraham Monotheism Diaspora Crossroads of the World
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