The Past, Present and Future

The Past, Present and Future

The Past, Present and Future Chapter 1 Obstetrics and Pediatric Care in United States Before 1900s babies were born at home; Maternal and child mortality and morbidity high Hospitals began to develop nursing training programs But then other things started to change and shift to hospitalization included: Physicians started to build relationships with hospitals Invention of obstetric instruments and anesthesia caused a change where mothers were being admitted to hospitals to birth children In 1960s Fathers were not involved and mother was sedated and did not participate much in delivery; mother and newborn kept separate; and children could not visit mother and baby Organizations were developed to help train nurses

such as American College of Nurse Midwives and Family-Centered Care Recognizes: Strength and integrity of the family As caregivers and decision makers, family is an integral part of obstetric and pediatric nursing. Empowerment is when the philosophy, goals, culture, and ethnic practices of family contribute to maintain control over health care of family members. Current Maternity Practices Focuses on a high-

quality family experience. Childbearing is seen as a normal and healthy event. Treating each family according to its individual needs is paramount. Karl Cred Karl Cred (1819-1892) German obstetric & gynecologist 1884 - Recommeded instilling 2% silver nitrate to the eyes of newborns to prevent blindness caused by gonorrhea. Standard procedure stayed the

same, but now only 1% silver nitrate is administered or antibiotic ointments are used. Ignaz Semmelweis Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865) 1840 worked as asst. professor in maternity ward of Vienna general hospital. Ignaz Semmelweis, hungarian physician developed some of the 1st microbial control practices for medical procedures. He introduced the germ theory. He discovered a relationship between the incidence of puerperal fever and the examination of new mothers by student doctors, who had just returned from dissecting cadavers. He deduced that puerperal fever was septic, contagious, and transmitted by the unwashed hands of physicians and medical

students. It was not until 1890 that his teaching was finally accepted. Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) French chemist Confirmed that puerperal fever was caused by bacteria and could be spread by improper handwashing and contact w/contaminated objects. The simple, but highly effective procedure of handwashing continues to be one of the most important means of preventing the spread of infection in the hospital and home today.

Joseph Lister Joseph Lister (18271895) British surgeon Influenced by Pasteur, experimented w/ chemical means of preventing infection and introduced antiseptic surgery. Govt Influences in Maternity &Pediatric Care The high infant and maternal mortality rates motivated action by the federal government to improve care. Programs were established to improve care such as: the Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921-state managed programs for maternity care title V of the Social Security Act- funds for

maternity care NIH-maternity research & education Head Start-education for preschoolers WIC program Family and Medical Leave Act-enables employees to be able to take 12 weeks of unpaid l eave Medicaid title XIX program-care for indigent women HIPAA-2003 & HITECH 2004 Health Care Reform Bill of 2010 Welfare of Children Lillian Wald (1867-1940) Credited w/suggesting the establishment of a federal childrens bureau which was established in 1912. Focused on problems of

infant and maternal mortality. It also led to birth registration in all states. 1930s Childrens Bureau research led to hot lunch programs in many schools. White House Conferences 1909 - The First White House Conference on Children and Youth was called by President Theodore Roosevelt. (18581919)-still held every 10 years to help promote child welfare The White House Conference on Child Health and Protection of 1930-The Childrens Charter was created It lists 17 statements related to the needs of children in areas of education, health,

welfare, and protection. Also need to remember that nurses have a responsibility certain diseases or conditions such as foodborne infections, tuberculosis, STIs, or other communicable diseases; suspected child abuse or suicidal behavior The Present Maternity Care Family Centered Care-In hospitals the family is recognized as a unit that is unique Three separate sections of maternity unit Labor, delivery, and recovery merged All events in one unit in one room Birthing Centers-popular with low risk maternity patients Provide comprehensive careantepartum, labor-delivery, postpartum, classes, follow up care, and family planning

Financial Considerations Includes monitoring and regulating expenditures of funds and involved budgets on an institution. Cost containment influenced maternity care by requiring the discharge of mother and newborn in 24 hours or less after delivery. Due to problems legislature allows up to 48 hours for vaginal deliveries and up to 4 days for cesarean sections Currently maternity practice deals with high quality family experience Midwives-RNs that has graduated from a midwife program. They can provide comprehensive prenatal and postnatal care in deliveries that were not complicated.

Cultural Considerations US is culturally diverse Including values, nation-Nurses need to develop: beliefs, and practices Need to develop Cultural awareness and cultural awareness Cultural sensitivity that and cultural differ from their own sensitivity which This will lead to helps meet the Cultural competence needs of various that will allow nurses cultures adapt health care

practices that will meet Cultural background will influence how a the needs of patients person adapts to that have a variety of birthing experiences cultures Culture-encompasses Cross-Cultural Considerations One way in which the nurse gains important information about an individuals culture is to ask the pregnant woman what she considers normal practice. A summary of data collection questions might include: How does woman view her pregnancy?

Does she view the birth process as dangerous? Why? What role does her significant other play in relation to the pregnancy and birth? Is birth private or a public experience for her? Such information helps to promote understanding and individualize patient care. It also increases the satisfaction of patient and nurse with quality of care provided.

Genomics Study and function of all of the genes in the human body, with focus on the interactions of each other and the environment. The Human Genome Project has identified all genetic material present in human body. Medical researchers can now identify genes responsible for specific congenital disorders and develop gene therapy. Gene therapy replaces missing genes or alter defective genes. This technological advances can result in earlier diagnosis, earlier Health Care Delivery Systems Cost Containment-major motivation factor in

health care Reimbursement an important consideration in health care Change instituted by the federal government for its Medicare and Medicaid programs was the diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) DRGs determine payment for hospital stay depending on diagnosis Patients are discharged from hospital and given more care in skilled nursing facilities or at home. Common Vital Statistic Terms Birth rate the number of

live births per 1000 population in 1 year. Fertility rate the number of births per 1000 women ages 15 to 44 years in a given population. Fertility mortality rate the number of fetal deaths (fetuses weighing 500 g or more) per 1000 live births per year. 1 kg = 1000 g Perinatal mortality rate Includes both fetal and neonatal deaths per 1000 live births per year. Infant mortality rate the number of deaths of

infants under age 1 year per 1000 live births per year. Maternal mortality rate the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births that occurs as a direct result of pregnancy. Neonatal mortality rate the number of deaths of infants less than age 28 days per 1000 live births per year. Clinical Pathways (Critical pathways) The basis of the pathway is identification of expected progress within a set timeline. Expected progress of the patient becomes a standard

of care. The use of clinical pathways improves the quality of care and reduces unnecessary hospitalization time contributing to cost containment. Any deviation in timeline would be considered a variance. NIC, NOC, and NANDA Nursing interventions The RN will initiate the Nursing (NIC) specifies actions that Care Plan and the LVN will need to nurses perform to help be able to understand and work patients toward a goal or with the care plan so it important

outcome. that LVN understand the The focus is on the action terminology and different areas. of the nurse. Nursing Interventions Nursing outcomes (NOC) Classification (NIC) identifies outcomes of Nursing Outcomes nursing care that are Classification (NOC) directly influenced by North American Nursing nursing actions. Diagnosis Association Outcomes are defined as (NANDA) are companions that the behaviors and feelings helps in the critical thinking

of the patient in response aspect of patient care. to the nursing care given. The Nursing Process and Critical Thinking The nursing process (assessment, diagnosis, planning (outcomes identification), implementation, and evaluation) is a tool for effective critical thinking. When nurses use the nursing process in critical thinking, a clinical judgment can be made that is specific to the data

collected and the clinical situation. In every clinical contact a nurse must identify actual and potential problems and make decisions about a plan of action that will result in a positive patient outcome; know why the actions are appropriate; differentiate between those problems that can be cared for independently and those that require other members of the health care team; and prioritize those actions.

Documentation Has always been a legal responsibility of the nurse. When a medication is given or treatment is performed, it is accurately documented on the patients chart. Charting responsibilities also include head-to-toe assessment of the patient and a recording of data pertinent to the diagnosis and response to treatment. Computerized Charting Has been fine-tuned and is used by most hospitals in the country.

It is a paperless method of charting that can be accomplished w/a wireless pad and an electronic pen. Security features are usually built in, and integrated prompts encourage accurate and comprehensive charting by forcing certain entries to be made before the user can progress further through the system. Healthy People 2020 Updates previous decades statement of national health and disease prevention Identifies objectives design to use vast knowledge and technology Objectives fall under broad categories

Health promotion Health protection Preventive services Development of surveillance and data systems Specific goals include increasing the span of healthy life and reducing health disparities What would be some things that would fall under 2020? Community-Based Nursing The nurse must work w/the interdisciplinary healthcare team to identify needs within the community and create cost-effective approaches to comprehensive preventive and therapeutic care. The role of the nurse as an educator within the community is facilitated by the use of schools, churches, health fairs,

computer websites, and media. Home health care team that includes the nurse would provide a variety of services that include monitoring, medication administration, nutritional options, and many other areas.

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