The Performance task as an alternative assessment: Its ...

The Performance task as an alternative assessment: Its ...

THE PERFORMANCE TASK AS AN ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT: ITS CONTRIBUTION TO TEACHING AND LEARNING (a CRPP-RGS PeRL Research Project) Student Performance and Assessment SYM033 Raffles Girls' School (Secondary), Singapore Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy

OUTLINE SYM033a : Informing the practice on the school-wide implementation of the Performance Task as an alternative assessment. By Mary George CHERIYAN SYM033b : Teacher perception and attitudes towards the design and implementation of the Performance Task as an

alternative assessment. By Puay Lan CHUA, Lucille SYM033c : Student motivation and achievement in the Performance Task. By Christopher SLATTER Uncovering Wisdom THE JOURNEY SO FAR

Thinking Schools Learning Nation (1997) I&E Teacher Teach Less Learn More (2004)

The journey so far? Quality of Interaction Learner 3 GUIDING PRINCIPLES Goals/ Outcomes

Pedagogy Uncovering Wisdom Assessment Assessment Shifts A Snapshot Holistic Assessment 201 0

School-based Science Practical Assessment C21st Skills Higher order thinking Information communication National Education 199 7 Uncovering Wisdom

Project work GCE A level 200 3 200 4 OTHER WAYS OF ASSESSMENT Aims of exploring new ways to assess

Empower students to thinking more deeply about the Math they are learning Provide teachers with information to revise and redirect their teaching Uncovering Wisdom Homework

Class Tests Semestral Exams Where are we? Project work Uncovering Wisdom Other Assessment

? e MANY OTHER ASSESSMENTS n do e b t i n Ca

Problem solving tasks Investigation Projects Journals

Conferences Portfolios Uncovering Wisdom Oral presentations Class discussions Observation Peer-directed Self-directed Teacher-directed

External Agencies Knowledge & Skills Self assessment Progress World TRENDS

in Assessment Sole Reliance On answers Multiple Sources Uncovering Wisdom Solutions Feedback

OTHER WAYS OF ASSESSMENT On-going process Involving the partnership of both teacher and students In making judgment about the students progress Using non-conventional strategies Uncovering Wisdom MANY FORMS OF ASSESSMENT

Problem solving tasks Investigation Projects Journals

Oral presentations Interviews Portfolios Uncovering Wisdom

Class discussions Observations Checklists Peer assessment Self assessment Student-generated items THREE PERSPECTIVES (HOUSE 1981) Technological Measurement

Knowledge Skills Cultural Interpretation Integration Political Power Authority

Competing interests Uncovering Wisdom OUTLINE SYM033a : Informing the practice on the school-wide implementation of the Performance Task as an alternative assessment. By Mary George CHERIYAN

SYM033b : Teacher perception and attitudes towards the design and implementation of the Performance Task as an alternative assessment. By Puay Lan CHUA, Lucille SYM033c : Student motivation and achievement in the Performance Task. By Christopher SLATTER

Uncovering Wisdom INFORMING THE PRACTICE ON THE SCHOOL-WIDE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PERFORMANCE TASK AS AN ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT. ((a CRPP-RGS PeRL Research Project) Presenter: Mary George Cheriyan Director RGS PeRL Presented at the Redesigning Pedagogy Conference, June 2011

Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy OVERARCHING CONCEPTS Culture of informed practice: Teachers integrate their experience, judgement and knowledge with current, relevant and reliable research.

Reflective Practice: habit of inquiring and investigating a problem situation in order to understand how to frame a solution (Schon, 1983,87) Uncovering Wisdom OUTCOMES This way of thinking is likely to instill in teachers the following attributes: Open-mindedness (Dewey, 1933)

Sense of responsibility Motivation (Loughran, 2002) Uncovering Wisdom SCHOOL-BASED RESEARCH Key ideas The divide between academic and teacher research Legitimacy of the knowledge production

by school-based inquiries The teachers voice (Zeichner, 1995) Uncovering Wisdom Uncovering Wisdom RESEARCH PROJECT: THE PERFORMANCE TASK Performance tasks are based on real world situations in which

the student creates products and/or performances that demonstrate her key understandings of the big ideas in the topic. Students apply higher order thinking to synthesize their knowledge of content and acquisition of skills to offer solutions and perspectives on the given issue. They may do so through divergent products that are appropriate to the context and their learning styles. The rubric lists the criteria that describe the standards by which their product/performance is assessed. Uncovering Wisdom

VALUE OF PT 1. Multiple measures of learning (Eisner, 1999), Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006) 2. Demonstration of critical thinking ( Howell, Brocato, Paterson, Bridges, 1999; Foo and Fan, 2007) 3.

Requires content mastery & conceptual understanding (MacLellan, 2004) Uncovering Wisdom THE PT IN RGS Alignment to the Integrated Curriculum Model (Baska, 1987)

The RGS Assessment Framework Time-based Assessments Applied Applied understandings understandings -Performance Tasks

-Performance Tasks Uncovering Wisdom Growth over time -Journal and Portfolios THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Reliability and validity of school-constructed

performance tasks: Focus on Secondary maths 2. What are teachers beliefs, attitudes, selfefficacy and their pedagogical practices in designing and implementing the performance task? How are they related with one another? 3. What are students motivation and their achievement in the performance task? How are

they related with one another? Uncovering Wisdom THE TEACHERS VOICE Teacher perception and attitudes towards the design and implementation of the Performance Task as an alternative assessment (a CRPP-RGS PeRL Research Project) SYM033b

Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW QUESTIONS POSED What do you understand by the term, Performance Task? Was this new assessment initiative been clearly communicated to you? Is it a practical move? How accurate (valid and reliable) are performance tasks, compared to other forms

of assessments, in gauging students understanding of a topic? Do you vary your pedagogy according to the type of assessments planned, pen and paper assessment (PPA) or performance task (PT)? Uncovering Wisdom FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW QUESTIONS POSED What form of mentoring do you provide your

students with as they embark on their performance tasks? Which, PPA or PT, provides students with more opportunities to demonstrate their critical thinking and/or creative thinking? How competent are you in designing a performance task? How can your competency be further developed? What are the challenges that you faced in the design of performance task? How did you overcome your challenges ?

Uncovering Wisdom TEACHERS RESPONSES .. Understanding of Performance Task

Encourage creativity - create product (2) Extend student learning beyond the classroom Demonstrate understanding (3) Involve critical thinking skills Challenging Project work (PW) or alternative assessment (AA) Audience (3) Role Authenticity (9) - transfer or application of learning

Communication of Performance Task PT design meetings collaborative work Inferences made about structure Learn by doing. look at past PTs, modify, adapt or create (5) Dialogues on the multi-layered concept among teachers (3) Workshops: Induction workshop(2) or PeRL PT workshop(2) Draw parallels - similar to authentic transfer task in Understanding by Design (UbD) workbook Uncovering Wisdom

TEACHERS RESPONSES .. Practicality of Performance Task as an Alternative Assessment

Feasible Individualism (2) Meaningful and engaging Process of discovering and uncovering (3) Assessment beyond the classroom; PPA and textbooks would not be seen as a be-all and end-all in learning Authentic scenarios (2) Challenging Raffles Programme (RP) curriculum Assessment chore Asia Pacific study on International Baccalaureate (IB) intensive drilling carried out in Years 5 and 6

Recognition and acceptance of PT by overseas universities Uncovering Wisdom TEACHERS RESPONSES .. Accuracy of Performance Task in Gauging Understanding

Fairness - assess different abilities and skills (3) Use of assessment rubrics Benchmarking Transfer or application of learning (3) Alignment to learners outcomes Validation: internal and external Pedagogical Approaches and Assessment Modes Built-in PT Prep (3) Show relevant examples or tasks PPA - chalk and board talk on the answer structure (2),

PT - idea exploration and standards (in rubrics) Understanding by Design (UbD) framework - alignment of assessment and pedagogy to learners outcomes Status quo Uncovering Wisdom TEACHERS RESPONSES .. Mentoring of Students in PT

Level of mentoring depends on class character Similar form of guidance Set benchmarks Audio-visual Aids and digital resources Task outline Coaching @ two levels task requirement and level of development Demonstration of Critical Thinking and/or Creative Thinking

Multi-dimensional exploration of task Creativity in product design (4)

Measurement of creative thinking is a challenge Regulate scale of product (2) Higher order thinking skills like evaluation and decision-making(4) Evidence of deep critical thinking looking at perspectives Variations in approach to task No model answer Uncovering Wisdom TEACHERS RESPONSES .. Level of Competency in PT design and Competency Development Good at, but not an expert on

Begin with the end in mind key understandings and nature of product Learn on the job or learn by doing (5) Open-mindedness and receptive continuous learning (3) Collaboration (2) Professional dialogues and sharing (3) PT Guidelines Challenges in PT design and Overcoming the Challenges

Learners outcomes dimensions of learning Nature of product Assessment rubrics (3) wording and standards Key understanding Bench-marking and objective grading Uncovering Wisdom FINDINGS : High level of awareness on the existence of a STRUCTURE for

PT design - GRASPS G R A S P S real world GOAL real world ROLE real world AUDIENCE real world SITUATION

real world PRODUCTS or PERFORMANCE Standards Criteria to judge product or performance Unevenness in the articulation of the meaning of PT Organisational communication of the rationale and objectives of PT is somewhat overlooked as teachers have uncovered and understood the idea of PT through self-discovery, collaborative work, professional discourse and workshops Uncovering Wisdom FINDINGS :

Generally very supportive of the idea of PT as an alternative assessment as it i. caters to individuality ii. supports the challenging Raffles Programme (RP) curriculum iii. equips students with the 21st century competencies PTs have been viewed as an assessment chore Low level of acceptance of PTs as an indicator of academic achievement by overseas universities PTs do provide a valid measure of the intended students outcomes. However the element of reliability is difficult to determine as the nature and form of PTs change on a yearly

basis. Uncovering Wisdom FINDINGS : Slight to moderate variations in teaching pedagogy; its task dependent as well as subject dependent. Teacher-involvement in the student learning process; some forms of teacher guidance, coaching and facilitation are provided. Clear thought processes reflected in the design of PT - begin with the end in mind, and

- mindful of a STRUCURE Encourage critical thinking (higher-order thinking skills) and creative thinking (ideas and products). Uncovering Wisdom FINDINGS : 2The teachers, as assessors, take responsibility for their assessment design. They believe in learning by doing and they commit themselves to continuous learning to enhance their competency in the design of PTs.

1The teachers are very positive about the use of PTs as an alternative mode of assessment. They recognise and acknowledge the value of PTs, especially in equipping the students with the 21st century competency. 1TKey challenge crafting of assessment rubrics Uncovering Wisdom IMPLICATIONS 1.

Communicate with clarity, concreteness and completeness to the teachers the idea of PT as effective communication is a necessity to successfully promote a shared vision. 2. Provide i. PT training workshop, conducted either by Alberta Assessment Consortium (AAC) or RGS PeRL, for teachers so that there is a common understanding among the teachers, and ii. greater infrastructure support e.g. provide a rubric construction kit that comprises a rubric checklist and a list of rubric vocabulary.

3. Encourage the development of a Professional Learning Community, where dyadic communication, sharing and support prevails, for PT design. Uncovering Wisdom IMPLICATIONS 4. End-of-year departmental review of PTs to i. fine-tune and improve the quality of existing PTs. (Students inputs can be sought.)

ii. ensure the validity and reliability of PT as an assessment tool by using a set of PT assessment rubrics. 5. Validate PT as an alternative assessment so that overseas universities would recognise and accept the validity and reliability of PT as a measure of student achievement in RGS in their admission exercise. Uncovering Wisdom

The Students Voice Student Motivation and Achievement in the Performance Task SYM033c Chris Slatter Uncovering Wisdom Through Pedagogy Introduction

Uncovering Wisdom A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary) Uncovering Wisdom A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary) The Ministry of Education recognized that nearly all students from the top schools in Singapore progressed to university.

Uncovering Wisdom A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary) The Ministry of Education recognized that nearly all students from the top schools in Singapore progressed to university. It was rationalized that these high ability students should not be required to sit O' Level examinations, but should be offered an enriched secondary school curriculum.

Uncovering Wisdom A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary) The Ministry of Education recognized that nearly all students from the top schools in Singapore progressed to university. It was rationalized that these high ability students should not be required to sit O' Level examinations, but should be offered an enriched secondary school curriculum. This is the origin of the Raffles Programme.

Uncovering Wisdom A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary) Uncovering Wisdom A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary) Best practices in gifted education recommend that the teaching and assessment of high ability students should be aligned with their learning style as well as their interests.

Uncovering Wisdom A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary) Best practices in gifted education recommend that the teaching and assessment of high ability students should be aligned with their learning style as well as their interests. This means using a range of pedagogies to teach the students both inside and outside of the classroom, but what about assessments?

Uncovering Wisdom A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary) Best practices in gifted education recommend that the teaching and assessment of high ability students should be aligned with their learning style as well as their interests. This means using a range of pedagogies to teach the students both inside and outside of the classroom, but what about assessments? Performance tasks give students some degree of autonomy through choice of topics and allow students to present

evidence of their understanding in a variety of different ways. Uncovering Wisdom A Brief History of Performance Tasks at Raffles Girls' School (Secondary) The structure of a performance task... G - real world Goal R - real world Role A - real world Audience S - real world Situation P - real world Products and Performance

S - Standards criteria to judge product and performance Uncovering Wisdom Compare and Contrast... 1) Alternative Assessment. 2) Authentic Transfer Task. 3) Performance Task. Conducting Research into Performance Tasks:

The Students Voice Uncovering Wisdom Conceptual Framework Uncovering Wisdom Conceptual Framework

Uncovering Wisdom Conceptual Framework Uncovering Wisdom What Does the Literature Have to Say About Performance Tasks? Uncovering Wisdom

What Does the Literature Have to Say About Performance Tasks? Uncovering Wisdom What Does the Literature Have to Say About Performance Tasks? Performance tasks tend to be used as an instrument to identify minority gifted / underrepresented gifted populations. Uncovering Wisdom

What Does the Literature Have to Say About Performance Tasks? Performance tasks tend to be used as an instrument to identify minority gifted / underrepresented gifted populations. Performance tasks tend to be used as a formative assessment (assessment for learning). Uncovering Wisdom What Does the Literature Have to Say About

Performance Tasks? Performance tasks tend to be used as an instrument to identify minority gifted / underrepresented gifted populations. Performance tasks tend to be used as a formative assessment (assessment for learning). There is little evidence that performance tasks are used as summative assessments (assessment of learning). Uncovering Wisdom Hypothesis

Performance tasks enable teachers and students to achieve learning goals that are less accessible by traditional assessments. Uncovering Wisdom Research Question How effective are performance tasks as an alternative form of assessment?

Uncovering Wisdom Methodology Uncovering Wisdom Methodology Mixed methods design (sequential exploratory strategy). Uncovering Wisdom Methodology

Mixed methods design (sequential exploratory strategy). Focus group interviews conducted with students (purposeful stratified sample - Year 1 to Year 4 Class Chairpersons, n = 40). Uncovering Wisdom Methodology Mixed methods design (sequential exploratory strategy). Focus group interviews conducted with students (purposeful stratified sample - Year 1 to Year 4 Class Chairpersons, n = 40).

Interviews are coded, and qualitative data is extracted. Uncovering Wisdom Methodology Mixed methods design (sequential exploratory strategy). Focus group interviews conducted with students (purposeful stratified sample - Year 1 to Year 4 Class Chairpersons, n = 40). Interviews are coded, and qualitative data is extracted. Qualitative data is used to design a survey for the collection of quantitative data from all students.

Uncovering Wisdom Methodology Mixed methods design (sequential exploratory strategy). Focus group interviews conducted with students (purposeful stratified sample - Year 1 to Year 4 Class Chairpersons, n = 40). Interviews are coded, and qualitative data is extracted. Qualitative data is used to design a survey for the collection of quantitative data from all students.

Uncovering Wisdom Methodology Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Seeing examples of good and bad products would be

useful. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Seeing examples of good and bad products would be useful. Setting students deadlines for certain key stages of the performance task would be useful for Year 1 students. The deadlines can be phased out as the students progress through to Year 4.

Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Seeing examples of good and bad products would be useful. Setting students deadlines for certain key stages of the performance task would be useful for Year 1 students. The deadlines can be phased out as the students progress through to Year 4. The overall percentage that the performance task is worth should reflect the amount of work that is required to complete it.

Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Seeing examples of good and bad products would be useful. Setting students deadlines for certain key stages of the performance task would be useful for Year 1 students. The deadlines can be phased out as the students progress through to Year 4. The overall percentage that the performance task is worth should reflect the amount of work that is required to

complete it. Deadlines for performance tasks overlap. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? There is the danger that students just "copy and paste" information into their performance tasks without critically

evaluating the data. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? There is the danger that students just "copy and paste" information into their performance tasks without critically evaluating the data. There should be peer evaluation of each student's work. Uncovering Wisdom

Results - What Did the Students Say? There is the danger that students just "copy and paste" information into their performance tasks without critically evaluating the data. There should be peer evaluation of each student's work. How to deal with students who do not do their fair share of the group component of the performance task? Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? There is the danger that students just "copy and paste"

information into their performance tasks without critically evaluating the data. There should be peer evaluation of each student's work. How to deal with students who do not do their fair share of the group component of the performance task? It is unfair to assess students on skills that they are unfamiliar with, for example, video editing. This also gives girls who have a video camera at home an unfair advantage. Uncovering Wisdom

Results - What Did the Students Say? Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? The aesthetic qualities of a performance task should not be assessed. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? The aesthetic qualities of a performance task should not be

assessed. The performance task should only cover topics that have been studied in class. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? The aesthetic qualities of a performance task should not be assessed. The performance task should only cover topics that have been studied in class. Girls argue that it is unfair to give them scenarios that they

are completely unfamiliar with, but this is required to some extent in order to make the performance task authentic. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Some performance tasks are valuable because they are aligned with the curriculum. The performance task is a

natural progression of the topic being taught. Other performance tasks are very artificial. They are "done because they need to be done" and for no other apparent reason. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Some performance tasks are valuable because they are aligned with the curriculum. The performance task is a natural progression of the topic being taught. Other performance tasks are very artificial. They are "done

because they need to be done" and for no other apparent reason. Rubrics can be quite subjective. It would be better if they were more detailed. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Some performance tasks are valuable because they are aligned with the curriculum. The performance task is a natural progression of the topic being taught. Other performance tasks are very artificial. They are "done

because they need to be done" and for no other apparent reason. Rubrics can be quite subjective. It would be better if they were more detailed. Students should be randomly grouped for each performance task by their teacher. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Uncovering Wisdom

Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks are a more interesting form of assessment as compared to pen-and-paper assessments. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks are a more interesting form of assessment as compared to pen-and-paper assessments. Performance tasks give students who are not good at pen-and-paper assessments an opportunity to demonstrate

their understanding. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks are a more interesting form of assessment as compared to pen-and-paper assessments. Performance tasks give students who are not good at pen-and-paper assessments an opportunity to demonstrate their understanding. Performance tasks give students the opportunity to be creative in terms of the process and the product.

Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks are a more interesting form of assessment as compared to pen-and-paper assessments. Performance tasks give students who are not good at pen-and-paper assessments an opportunity to demonstrate their understanding. Performance tasks give students the opportunity to be creative in terms of the process and the product. Performance tasks allow students to play to their

strengths in terms of the process and product. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks allow students to find solutions to authentic problems.

Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks allow students to find solutions to authentic problems. Performance tasks are interesting because they are framed in a real world scenario. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks allow students to find solutions to

authentic problems. Performance tasks are interesting because they are framed in a real world scenario. Performance tasks give students the opportunity to work in groups. Preparation for the work place? Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Performance tasks allow students to find solutions to authentic problems. Performance tasks are interesting because they are framed

in a real world scenario. Performance tasks give students the opportunity to work in groups. Preparation for the work place? Some teachers go through the rubrics, clarifying, elaborating and explaining. Uncovering Wisdom Results - What Did the Students Say? Uncovering Wisdom

Results - What Did the Students Say? Students study a topic in more detail when they are assessed by performance task. They read more deeply into the subject. Uncovering Wisdom Conclusions Uncovering Wisdom

Conclusions Limitations of the performance task appear to be grounded in the technical details of its implementation. For example, deadlines, duration and mark allocation. Uncovering Wisdom Conclusions Limitations of the performance task appear to be grounded in the technical details of its implementation. For example, deadlines, duration and mark allocation. Some issues centred around pedagogy were raised. For

example, some but not all teachers will discuss the grading rubric with their students. This needs to be addressed at a schoolwide level. Uncovering Wisdom Conclusions Limitations of the performance task appear to be grounded in the technical details of its implementation. For example, deadlines, duration and mark allocation. Some issues centred around pedagogy were raised. For example, some but not all teachers will discuss the

grading rubric with their students. This needs to be addressed at a schoolwide level. In general, the students recognise the importance of performance tasks and are able to verbalise this. Their feedback is in general agreement with the pedagogical objectives of performance tasks as stated in the literature. Uncovering Wisdom Recognised Limitations Uncovering Wisdom

Recognised Limitations Small sample size. The 40 students who participated in the focus group interviews are only a small percentage of the entire cohort of ca. 1800 students. Uncovering Wisdom Recognised Limitations Small sample size. The 40 students who participated in the focus group interviews are only a small percentage of the entire cohort of ca. 1800 students.

The students that were interviewed were the class chairpersons. Are they typical students whose opinions reflect those of their peers? Uncovering Wisdom Recognised Limitations Small sample size. The 40 students who participated in the focus group interviews are only a small percentage of the entire cohort of ca. 1800 students. The students that were interviewed were the class chairpersons. Are they typical students whose opinions

reflect those of their peers? Just because a student (or anybody for that matter) says something, does not make it true! Uncovering Wisdom Further Research Uncovering Wisdom Further Research To address the recognised limitations of the qualitative

study, items that have been coded from the students focus group interviews will be translated into survey questions that will be given out for all students to complete. Uncovering Wisdom Further Research To address the recognised limitations of the qualitative study, items that have been coded from the students focus group interviews will be translated into survey questions that will be given out for all students to complete. Numerical data obtained from the survey will be statistically

analysed, thus giving a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative information. This will allow (confident) recommendations to be made to both the schools teachers and student population with regards to performance tasks. Uncovering Wisdom

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