The Reformation

The Reformation

THE REFORMATION (TO CHANGE OR REORGANIZE) CAUSES OF THE REFORMATION Forces that weakened the Catholic Church: New emphasis on secular (worldly) & individuals vs. religion (Middle Ages) Merchants want to be leaders, not Church clergy/popes Merchants did not want to pay TITHES (taxes) to Church Printing press spreading ideas faster! Church clergy corrupt & poorly educated!

MARTIN LUTHER Monk from Wittenberg, GER. Took stand against churchs INDULGENCES: pardon that bought your way into heaven Posted 95 THESES on Church door attacking this idea & pardon merchants, Oct. 31st, 1517

Began the Reformation movement for religious reform M. LUTHERS THREE MAIN IDEAS 1. Can only win salvation by faith alone in God 2. Bible is ultimate authority & all teachings should be based on it 3.

All people with faith are equal before God WHAT HAPPENED TO M. LUTHER? Pope was unhappy! Threatened Luther with EXCOMMUNICATION (kick out) unless he RECANT (take back) his statements

Luther threw decree in a bonfire & Pope excommunicated Luther Edict of Worms (outlaw & heretic) Holy Roman Emperor (Charles V) was ANGRY & sent him to Town of Worms for trial Video Time! Luther video: Indulgences, 95 Theses, Printing Press (5 minutes)

http:// WILL LUTHER RETURN? A prince sheltered Luther for 2 years Luther translated New Testament into German Luther returns! Found priests now dressing in regular clothes

& called ministers Now leading church service in German, not Latin! New religious sect: LUTHERANS REVOLT AGAINST LUTHER 1524 German peasants like Luthers ideas demand end to serfdom (slavery) & started a revolt

Luther mad! Told German princes to crush revolt successful Peasants felt betrayed & rejected Luther GERMANY AT WAR, Part I Most northern German princes supported Lutheranism went against Pope

Signed a protest against the Church Protesting Princes PROTESTANT term applied to Christians belonging to nonCatholic Churches GERMANY AT WAR, PART II Holy Roman Emperor CHARLES V (Hapsburg family) went to war against Protestant Princes & defeated them

But couldnt make them come back to the Catholic Church Tired of fighting signed PEACE OF AUGSBURG (1555) Religion of each German state be decided by its ruler (own Pope) ENGLAND BECOMES PROTESTANT

TUDOR FAMILY: King Henry VIII wants a son, but wife too old! Divorce not allowed (Popes rule) Henry calls Parliament (government) to pass laws that end Popes power in England REFORMATION PARLIAMENT Henry marries Anne Boleyn

NO MORE POPE IN ENGLAND ACT OF SUPREMACY: Made English King not the popethe head of Englands Church HENRY VIIIs CHILDREN Henrys 3 kids: Mary, Elizabeth, & Edward Edward ruled for 6 years, then died

Mary took over & was Catholic, so turned Church back over to the pope! Mary pushed out, and Elizabeth restores Protestantism She becomes head of the Church of England, or ANGLICAN CHURCH SPANISH ARMADA Marys

husband, King Philip II of Spain (Catholic), was angry & planned attack on England Sent 130 ships, 8,000 sailors, & 19,000 soldiers England defeated the Spanish (under Elizabeths rule) REFORMATION SPREADS

Word spreads to France to JOHN CALVIN Writes book that says all humans are sinful & CANT EARN salvation only a few are already CHOSEN PREDESTINATION = God has already chosen those to save (predetermined)

New religion, CALVINISM (Protestant sect); based out of Geneva, Switz. STRICT! PROTESTANTS VS. CATHOLICS Princes in North Germany converting to Protestantism (no more Pope) Hapsburg Family & Holy Roman Empire in South Germany still support Roman Catholic Church

Begins war Charles V defeats Protestant Princes, but cant get them to convert back In France, Catholics vs. Huguenots (Fr. Protestants) went to war frequently STILL FIGHTING DONT WRITE THIS DOWN , you already have this information!

PEACE OF AUGSBURG= says each states ruler free to choose religion Peace short-lived Small states around Holy Roman Empire converting to Protestantism; tensions high Leads to THIRTY YEARS WAR CATHOLIC REFORMATION

Movement to help keep Catholics stay loyal COUNTER-REFORMATION: Catholic church has lost so many people Ignatius of Loyola creates Society of Jesus (JESUITS) to spread Catholic word again & stop Protestantism Sent out INDEX OF FORBIDDEN BOOKS LEGACY OF THE REFORMATION 1.

Protestant churches flourish 2. Religion no longer unites Europe 3. Individual monarchs & states gain power (church declines) 4. Helped set stage for modern world

COUNCIL OF TRENT Catholic bishops agreed on these doctrines: 1. Churchs interpretation of Bible was final 2. Christians need BOTH faith and good works for salvation (opposite of Luther) 3. Bible and Church are equal authorities 4. Indulgences are valid expressions of faith (but false selling was banned)

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