The Renaissance & The Reformation Ch. 15 The Italian Renaissance An Era of Awakening The Renaissance rebirth A philosophical and artistic movement that began in Itlay. Renewed interest in ancient Greek & Roman literature and life. Medieval scholars wanted to bring everything they learned into harmony with Christian teachings. Emphasis on the power of human reasoning. Many advancements made in arts and sciences.
Causes of the Renaissance Remains of the Roman Empire reminded people of the greatness of the Romans. Trade with southwestern Asia helped Italians learn about Arab & African achievements in science and medicine. Leaders such as Lorenzo Medici and Islabella dEste supported the arts. Lorenzo Medici Study of the Humanities In the 1300s Italian scholars used classical
Greek and Roman literature to study grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric (using language to communicate effectively). These subjects are called the humanities. Renaissance Writers Francesco Petrarch (1304 to 1374) became a famous scholar, teacher, and poet. Wrote a series of poems to Laura, an imaginary ideal women. These poems are
considered some of the greatest love poems in history. O you, who hears in scattered verse the sound Of all those sighs with which my heart I fed, When I, by youthful error was misled, Unlike my present self in passion drowned; Who hears the woes, the pleadings that abound Throughout my song, by hopes and vain griefs bred; If ever true love its influence over you shed, Oh ! let your pity be with pardon crowned. But now full well I see how to the crowd For a long time I proved a public jest: E'ven by myself my folly is allowed: And of my vanity what's left is shame, Repentance, and a knowledge deep
impressed, That worldly pleasure is a passing dream. Sonnet 1 to Laura Renaissance Writers Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 to 1527) a famous diplomat and historian. Famous for his essay, The Prince. The essay was about how to government actually worked. A controversy has arisen
about this: whether it is better to be loved than feared, or vice versa. My view is that it is desirable to be both loved and feared; but it is difficult to achieve both, and if one of them has to be lacking, it is much safer to be feared than loved From The Prince by Machiavelli Renaissance Writers Desiderius Erasmus (1466 to 1536) most influential humanist of northern Europe. Humanist people who
specialize in studying the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry). Most famous book is Praise of the Folly which criticized ignorance, superstition, and addiction among Christians. The summit of happiness is reached when a person is ready to be what he is. Renaissance Writers
Through me you go to the grief wracked city; famous Italian writer. Through me you go to Wrote The Divine everlasting pain; Comedy which is Through me you go a considered his greatest pass among lost souls. work of literature. Justice inspired my The Divine Comedy exalted Creator: I am a includes 3 parts creature of the Holiest Inferno, Purgatory, Power, of Wisdom in Paradise describes the Highest and of
the 3 places a Christian Primal Love. Nothing soul might go after till I was made was death. made, only eternal beings. And I endure Dante (1265 to 1321) Renaissance Art Some of the worlds greatest artistic masterpieces were created during the Renaissance. Renaissance painters used a technique called perspective to make painting more lifelike. Painted objects in the background of the painting
smaller to give the canvas an illusion of depth. Leonardo da Vinci One of the most famous men from the Renaissance. He was multi-talented Architect, engineer, painter, sculptor, and scientist. Considered the Renaissance Man because he was talented in almost everything. Famous works include the Mona Lisa, The Last Supper Michelangelo Famous Renaissance painter
Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican. 3D Tour of the Sistine Chapel The Protestant Reformation Catholicism in the 1400s Roman Catholic Church influential, extravagant, and worldly. People were concerned over the actions of the Church. Financing Dissatisfaction Working Off Sins Basilica Financial
Needed money corruption for St. Peters Abuse of power Basilica (church in Immorality the Vatican City) People lose Pope Leo X respect for priests, approved the sale monks, and popes of indulgences Heavy taxes paying for imposed by the forgiveness of sins church cause unhappiness in Catholics believed that the
dead went to purgatory and worked off the sins they committed Church said that buying indulgences reduced the What Caused the Reformation? Criticism of the Roman Catholic Church Humanists believed that the Church was more interested in making money than saving souls. Many believed the pope acted as a political leader instead of a moral leader. Priests engaged in misconduct instead of moral behavior. People called for a change in the ways of the
church, but they were ignored. After they were ignored the humanists encouraged them to withdraw from the Church and meet with people who shared their same beliefs. Early Reformers John Wycliffe Jan Hus Preached against Believed church immorality and should give up its worldliness in the worldly Church. possessions. Excommunicated by The church was
Pope Gregory XII angry about his position on this Later arrested, tried issue. for heresy, and Removed him from burned at the stake position as teacher These two men openly criticized the Church. in the Church.led to discussion among Church Their criticisms members that eventually started the Reformation. n
Luthe r Wrote The Ninety-Five Theses Said that selling indulgences was sinful and that indulgences would not forgive sin. Criticized the power of the pope and the growing wealth of the Church. Nailed the theses to the doors of the church so that people would read them as they came to the church. Published the theses and distributed them across Europe. Causes an increase in the desire for reform
Reactions to Martin Luther Churchs Response German Diet Edict of Worms Protestant 1520 Pope Leo X expelled Luther from the Church 1521 Luther summoned to appear before the Holy Roman
Emperor, Charles V Luther appears before the emperor and the German Diet in the city of Worms Refused to change his opinions on the church Emperor hands down the Edict of Worms Declared Luther to be an outlaw
Condemned his writings But Luthers ideas continue to spread Charles V tried to suppress Luthers teachings, but people had already began to follow them. Followers were called Lutherans German princes had decided to follow Luther and protested the suppression
of their beliefs this is where the term Protestant comes from. John Calvin Important Protestant reformer Supported Martin Luther Preached predestination the idea that God had decided who would be saved at the beginning of time. God guides the life of those destined to be saved. Nothing you do will change your predestination. Believed that people are sinful by nature. Strict laws to regulate behavior. Wanted to make society good for those who had been chosen for salvation.
The Spread of Protestantism Luthers stand against the Church opened the door for others to disagree with Church teachings. People expressed different ideas on religious matters. Lutheranism rose in Germany and different religious ideas began across Europe. Henry VIII King of England in 1509 and a devout Catholic. His wife Catherine had only given him a daughter and he wanted a son to inherit the throne. Decided to have his marriage annulled made void; cancelled.
The pope would not agree to this. Henry VIII withdrew from the Catholic Church and created the Church of England (Anglican Church) the king was the head of the Church. Henry VIII divorced Catherine and married a total of 6 times. Bloody Mary Henry VII did eventually father a son, Edward. Edward took the throne in 1547, but died shortly after. His sister Mary took the throne and returned power to the pope. Had many Protestants burned at the stake for heresy. Earned her the title of Bloody Mary
Elizabeth I When Mary died her half-sister Elizabeth becomes the Queen. Elizabeth was a Protestant 1559 she drafted the Supremacy Act which caused England to split from the Catholic Church for a second time. Catholics tried to have one of their people placed in the position of Queen, but were unsuccessful. Elizabeth persecuted the Catholics and secured the Church of England. The Counter Reformation 1530s Catholics start a major reform effort known as the Counter Reformation. Began as an attempt to return the Church to an
emphasis on spiritual matters. Also a campaign to stop the spread of Protestantism. The pope used Inquisition to put heretics on trial and impose harsh punishments. Created The Index of Forbidden Books. Since Gutenbergs invention of the printing press literacy had increased and people were reading books that exposed them to ideas that differed from the Church. Anyone caught reading a forbidden book was accused of heresy & the books were burned. The Council of Trent The pope knew the attacks on Protestantism would fail if Catholic doctrines were not clearly defined. 1545 Pope Paul III summoned church leaders to
a meeting to define the Church doctrine. This meeting became known as the Council of Trent. Ended the sale of indulgences Tightened discipline within the clergy Claimed that salvation came from individual faith and participation in Church ceremonies Said that people must depend on priests because God only granted forgiveness through the Church Stressed that every person had free will no predestination! The Jesuits During the Counter Reformation many Catholic religious orders reformed their rules, and new religious orders formed. One new group were the Jesuits, or Society of Jesus.
Believed that salvation could be achieved by doing good deeds. Followers took vow of poverty, chastity, and obedience to the pope. Organized like a military and became the most effective agents in spreading Catholicism throughout Europe and parts of Asia. Combined humanist educational values with Catholic doctrines to produced educated & faithful Church members. Results of the Counter Reformation Appearance of many different churches in
Europe denominations. Strong interest in education many universities built; literacy increased. Increased power of the national government. Decreased power of the pope.
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