THE RISE OF IMPERIALISM & NATIONALISM OBJECTIVES Students will be expected to: List the factors that led to the rise of nationalism Explain how nationalism led to the rise of imperialism Describe the influence of industrialization on imperialism Explain the impact of imperialism
STANDARDS SSWH16 Analyze the rise of nationalism & worldwide imperialism. a. Compare & contrast the rise of the nation state in Germany under Otto von Bismarck & Japan during the Meiji Restoration b. Assess imperialism in Africa & Asia, include: the influence of geography & natural resources GERMANY & JAPAN: FACTORS THAT LED TO RISE OF NATIONALISM
Germany Japan Became a nation-state Became a modern in 1871 nation-state in 1867 Shared history & cultural Shared history & cultural identity drove unification identity drove unification
Religion Social customs Religion Social customs Common language Foreign threats Common language Foreign threats
GERMANY & JAPAN: FACTORS THAT LED TO RISE OF NATIONALISM Germany Otto von Bismark Prussian Prime Minister Unified Germany Ruled blood & iron Manufactured much of the foreign threat against Germany
Incited 3 wars France Austria Denmark Japan Unlike Germanys threats, Japans foreign threats were very real U.S., Russia, France, & Britain Meiji Restoration led to Japanese
unity & nationalism Restored a sense of stability with Japanese people Emperor had no real power but became a symbol of unity Meiji reforms led to modernization, westernization, & industrialization GERMANY & JAPAN: FACTORS THAT LED TO RISE OF IMPERIALISM
Germany & Japan: Evolved into modern-nation states Industrialized rapidly Built powerful militaries Were motivated by nationalism & economics to turn to imperialism, or empire building
Germany Built a vast empire in Africa and Southeast Asia Japan Took large parts of East Asia (Korea, Manchuria, Taiwan) IMPERIALISM Africa & Asia IMPERIALISM: FACTORS
European, U.S., & Japanese imperialism in the 19th & 20th century grew out of industrialization Need for raw materials such as metals, coal, rubber, cotton, & palm oil to mass produce goods Need for new markets to sell the goods produced Desire for luxury goods & spread of Christianity still factors European nations, U.S., & Japan used military might to conquer vast empires Industrialization led to military might Nationalism used to justify conquering other people & lands
IMPERIALISM 1815 Western European & U.S. controlled 35% of the earths habitable territory 1914 Western European & U.S. controlled 85% of this territory. IMPERIALISM: JUSTIFICATION While imperialism during 1600s was easily justified by religion, new imperialism needed different justification Darwins book Origin of the Species gave these
countries the natural selection justification U.S. & European nations had evolutionary advantage thus the right to conquer White Mans Burden It was more advanced peoples (Europeans & Americans) job to help the less advanced peoples (people of color) become more civilized IMPERIALISM: AFRICA 17th century Europeans first established colonies in
Africa Dutch (Belgium) established a colony in South Africa Portuguese formed a colony in Angola Tropical regions were generally safe from European power because of tropical diseases like malaria until 19th century 19th century use of quinine to treat malaria greatly reduced the threat of disease Allowed for Europeans systematic conquest of the continent
IMPERIALISM: AFRICA 1800s British arrived in southern Africa Pushed the descendants of Dutch settlers, called Boers, north into Zulu and Xhosa territory Boers established 2 independent countries The discovery of gold & diamonds in these territories brought war with the British & expansion of British territory in South Africa 1899 Boer War Around the same time, French began a brutal campaign to take
Northwest Africa 1880s France, Britain, Portugal, Belgium, Germany, Italy & Spain were racing to take over the continent in what is called the Scramble for Africa IMPERIALISM: AFRICA 1884 European powers met in Berlin in 1884 to divide up the African continent Berlin Conference 14 countries Countries must claim land & prove ability to control it
Following the conference, only 2 African nations remained independent Ethiopia managed to modernize fast enough to fight off Italy Liberia was protected by the U.S. Europeans began to drain African natural resources including palm oil, ivory, rubber, gold, diamonds, metals, & cotton IMPERIALISM: AFRICA The European rule in Africa was a mixture of economic exploitation, racist subjugation & well-meaning reform
Belgium, Germany, & Portugal tended to be more ruthless Britain & France more benevolent, or well meaning All of the Europeans contributed to economic exploitation, ethnic tension & modernization Negatives Natural resources & luxury goods were harvested & mined for the exclusive benefit of European overlords Ethnic tensions between African groups were exacerbated by poorly placed borders & sometimes exploited to facilitate European control Violent conflict killed thousands as modern European armies
crushed poorly equipped but determined Africans IMPERIALISM: AFRICA All of the Europeans contributed to economic exploitation, ethnic tension & modernization Positives Schools, hospitals, & infrastructure were built that became an asset to the African people The slave trade was suppressed educated African elite were allowed to help in
administration European rule spurred African nationalism, unified diverse peoples & eventually planted the seeds for independence in the 20th century. IMPERIALISM: INDIA Imperialism in Asia also dates back to the Age of Exploration 1500s & 1600s Europeans begin to colonize Asia 1700s & 1800s Vast Asia empires established by European nations
Portuguese, Dutch, & French established coastal footholds in South Asia British ended Mughal rule & brought all of South Asia into their empire IMPERIALISM: INDIA British East India Company (BEIC) Motivated by lucrative commodities like cotton, spices, tea, & opium Used a combination of diplomacy & warfare to gain control
of India After decline of Mughal Empire, BEIC offered services including military protection, tax collection, & administration to local rulers in exchange for access to trade Over time, the BEIC became the dominate power in the region BEIC employed a multitude of both native administrators & soldiers (called sepoy). IMPERIALISM: INDIA British East India Company rule over India came with
exploitation & benefit Negatives Mismanagement & greed caused famines & cholera epidemics Positives The philosophy of white mans burden brought schools, hospitals, & improved food distribution systems
Trade brought railroads & telegraphs Following the Sepoy Mutiny, British took direct control of India from 1757 to 1947 India was the crown jewel of Britain in southern Asia for over 90 years IMPERIALISM: CHINA China became a target of European imperialism due to political arrogance & ignorance as well as the trade of lucrative goods like silk, porcelain, & tea
Qing Dynasty of China continued to view their home as the Middle Kingdom surrounded by barbarians with nothing to offer the culturally superior Chinese. This attitude led to the creation of the Canton System The Chinese government limited foreign merchants to a small number of ports, with Canton being the most significant Merchants only allowed to purchase Chinese goods with silver IMPERIALISM: CHINA
Western diplomats protested this trade imbalance & asked for right to sell European goods in China Chinese government responded by dismissing the usefulness of European goods to the Chinese British turned to highly addictive opium, which they began to market for recreational use in Chinese ports British marketing efforts were successful Reversed trade imbalance in Chinese ports Many Chinese addicted to Opium Led to Opium Wars
IMPERIALISM: CHINA Access to commodities like rubber, petroleum, & metals combined with a strategic location along key trade routes motivated Dutch, French, German, American & British corporations & governments to establish
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