The Ship Design Continuum References

Design Tools to Support NAVSEA Ship Design & Program Management & NAVSEA - CNET HSI for Training Systems ITE Inc. April 12, 2007 1507A N. Colonial Terrace Arlington, VA 22209 703-528-3711 www.ITEinc.US References: ASNE Technical Paper, Achieving Human Systems Integration through Design, June 2003 I/ITSEC Technical Paper, A Total Ship Crew Model to Achieve Human Systems Integration, December 2004 Available on ITE Website at www.ITEinc.US 1 www.ITEinc.US Agenda 1. Purpose 2. History of NAVSEA Physics Based Design (PBD) Tools 3. CAD-Physics History: Integration Design Applications HSI Applications 4. Crafting a Design Environment to support SECNAV, NAVSEA & CNET Objectives 5. Capture all validated models for HSI reuse 6. Way Ahead 2 www.ITEinc.US 1. Purpose 3 www.ITEinc.US Purpose To share ITE 8 year history of working with NAVSEA to develop:

Support NAVSEA objectives for managing ship design: use concurrent V&V Physics Based Design Tools Integration of Physics Tools with 2D-3D CAD Tools Reuse of validated physics model to support HSI ICAS support DDG-1000 Design Tools Support DoD SECNAV Policy: Simulation Based Acquisition Discuss successful, practical examples of concurrent V&V of design using physics modeling and reuse of captured models for HSI objectives for NAVSEA & CNET: Shore & Afloat Dynamic Eng / DC & Total Ship Training (BFTT) Real-time Readiness Assessment ship systems (ICAS) Engineering & DC Operational Decision Aids Distance Support Future Ship Modernization Support Next Generation Integrated Power Systems (NGIPS) design architectures and supporting design tools Reduce RISK to Performance, Cost and Schedule 4 www.ITEinc.US 2. History of NAVSEA Physics Based Design (PBD) Tools 5 www.ITEinc.US Simsmart Physics analysis was competitively selected by NAVSEA in 1996 is a multi-discipline Physics Based Design (PBD) tool for HM&E process and control systems: Liquids Gases

HVAC AC/DC electrical generation and distribution Logic and analog machinery control systems Propulsion 6 www.ITEinc.US Simsmart Physics Tool Overview To create SIMSMART flow sheets just drag & drop the desired equipment and control icons on the screen from selected model libraries, link them and enter 7 their characteristics www.ITEinc.US The CAD Tools Physics Modeling (Computer Aided Drafting) Does it fit? Does it work? Performance Metrics SIMSMART HMI ... Run-Time Data Trend www.ITEinc.US 8 Ship Modernization / HSI: Open the Model Create & Validate the New Design HSI App. Integrated Product Data Environment (IPDE

9 www.ITEinc.US Typical Simsmart IV&V Applications LHA LPD17 - Machinery seawater cooling, firemain, ballast/de-ballast, air deballast hydraulics, chill water system, fuel fill and transfer, MOGAS, nitrogen inerting, ballast tank internals CG DD21 Alliance (DD21/DDX/DDG1000 - HM&E and DC systems design V&V CG47 Upgrade AAW Warfare Commander Alt: Chilled water system, firemain, electrical generation and distribution LPD LHA 1 Class - Firemain flow network analyses & life cycle studies DDG BFTT - Battle Force Tactical Training System: Total Ship Training System LSD41 Class - Seawater cooling system design & life cycle studies CVN68 Class - Firemain, JP5 fuel handling system, collecting holding & transfer (CHT); System concept, trade-off studies and system operation T-AKR Class - De-watering system troubleshooting, cargo storage area HVAC system troubleshooting CVN DDG1000 Navy Post Graduate School Ship Progressive Flooding Analysis Non-oily waste membrane treatment - Concept design studies, design impacts & operator training LSD DDG51 De-watering, Firemain Arsenal Ship R&D - Firemain, ballast/de-ballast T-AKR LHD8 and more 10 www.ITEinc.US Physics Based Ship Engineering Design Analysis, V&V & HSI Tools Domain of Multi-discipline Real-time , Component, System and Total Ship Modeling For Concurrent

Engineering Analysis, Verification, Performance Monitoring & HSI Domain of Single Discipline Component to System Design Characteristics (Typical): Models essentially custom built HSI Support Modeling SW does not come with Navy HM&E models Virtual Ship Model Usually non-real time Usually single discipline: Electrical or Fluid or HVAC Operating Doctrine / Human-in-Loop Performance Models EOSS Embedded Training EOCC Manpower Automation Analysis CSOSS or Gas or Plant Performance Monitoring, Distance Support Used for: sizing, transient / fault analysis, protective device settings Operational Decision Aids MATLAB Mentor Graphics ROSE ACSL EDSA 1 SPICE

EASY5 RTDS VTB SIMSMART 2 Saber PSCAD EASYPOWER Transition to Smart Product Model / Total Ship Model when Design Verified by Engineering Analysis, PE Certified & Defined in CPC Format Part Numbers for Acquisition Human Task-Skill Actions: Time and Event based Real-Time, Multi-discipline, Cascading Effects of HM&E operations & damage Used for R&D, EDM development, Analysis In general, do not interface to ship production CAD - CAM process (see notes) SIMSMART 2 meets ALL Multi-Discipline Requirements Multi-Discipline Total Ship Model NAVSEA CPC Based Libraries & Multidiscipline for Total Ship Modeling: Smart Product Model (CPC Based) (PBD - CAD By ship / class)

Electrical Fluid CPC Compliant Components Gas HVAC Controls FLOWMASTER 1.EDSA is associated with CATIA for electrical design 2. SIMSMART supports systems engineering as well as total ship models using CPC parts with electronic data exchange with shipyard CAD-CAM systems. Ship / Class 2D/3D CAD-Physics Dynamic V&V Ship Design / Production & Lifecycle Support Modeling Domains should be Complementary throughout the Design & Life Cycle Support Process 11 www.ITEinc.US From NAVSEA highlights: SIMSMART Inc. has successfully modeled 8 piping systems for Avondale. These models have revealed system deficiencies which may not have been noticed using traditional flow network calculations (spreadsheets). They have also made obvious several system enhancements that save money and production time while still meeting the requirements of the contract. For example, the chilled water model was used to show that a portion of the main had to be increased in size from 5 to 6 inches due to the unanticipated demand that developed in this area of the ship through the detail design process. Without this modeling capability it is entirely possible that this shortfall in the system may have gone unnoticed until such time where fitting the larger main into the overhead would have been impossible. This is just one example where this exceptional tool has more than paid for itself. Daniel S. Van Voorhis US Navy - LPD 17 Machinery IPT Dated ~ Oct 2001 12 www.ITEinc.US 3. CAD-Physics Development History: a. Integration Sponsors: * DDG-1000 * NSRP

b. Design Applications c. HSI Applications 13 www.ITEinc.US Design Tools to Improve Efficiency of Program Management and Human Systems Integration Rev 5 Compiled by ITE Inc 2007 www.ITEinc.US (print 11 x 17 or larger) Executive Summary Navy Training Requirements 1999 2000 CNO ADM Clark ordered Executive Review Navy Training (ERNT) 2001 VADM Lee Gunn Report Revolution in Training w/ To build careers / use Multi-Level Metrics 2002 2003 2004 CNET : Task Force Excel http://www.uscg.mil/TCYORKTOWN/PTC/downloads/ TFE.ppt CNET: 5 Vector Model / Career Training & Education from Ship Acquisition thru Ship Lifecycle 2005 2006 2007

2005 2007 ANZAC Frigate Total 2005Ship 2007 ANZACModel Frigate Total HME&DC Ship HME&DC Model NAVSESS $$ ACNAVSESS Unit Model$$ AC for Unit ICASModel for ICAS Virtual Hot Virtual Hot Plant and Plant OBT and OBT Premise: Use ship design tools to support ship design / program managers during all phases of design, trials and tests, permitting IV&V monitoring the designs and HSI objectives in progress, linked to corresponding CAD drawings. Physics math models (basis of design), now lost, are captured for reuse for: Distance Support, Performance Monitoring, Readiness Assessment, Operational Decision Aids for DC and Engineering, and future ShipAlt planning. Also support advanced dynamic interactive training ashore and afloat, as well as to provide the underlying computations to teach students how and why systems work prepare them for critical thinking,

college work, etc. NAVSESS $$ BTSWG Mtgs NAVSESS HPAC Model$$ New NAVSEA VADM Balisle Needs HM&E & DC SIM-STIM 1st Demo/Model delivered Notional CG HPAC Model SBIR for ICAS Re-org NAVSEA IWS-1E Rick Ph 2 Ends for ICAS I/ITSEC 2001 International BFTT Virtual Hot Model of notional Virtual Hot Bragg. All new contracts. Demo Tactical & Eng, DC via Plant and CG Plant WAN U.S. U.K.-Aus.OBT and Staff change over. OBT Netherlands. DSR SBIR Contract Mod to SBIR Phase 2 OAK added to SBIR add Simsmart HM&E-DC model BFTT CS / IWS-1E HM&E and DC DSR / Simsmart First Real Time BFTT? / OAK contracts Model I/ITSEC 2000, see DCAMS at cascading casualties end demonstrated Capt Shannon BFTT booth, Recommend join for damage and

Joe Loudon SBIR HM&E / repair tied to BFTT CS, using Mar 2002:Directed Demo for CNSF VADM Tim LaFleur observes EOSS / EOCC / TSTC ICD Drafted Effort VADM LaFleur & Staff @ SD CoC CNSF stopped with NAVSEA Reorg. BFTT / Simsmart Demo @ SNA 2002 CSOSS SNA 2002 RADM Terry Had tasked Staff in Etnyre 2003 ASNE 2000 to Report 2003 ASNE 2004 Tech status / 2004 Tech I/TSEC Paper: Ship Models for Training from requirements for @ SBIR 2002 CNSF: I/TSEC Paper: Tech Achieve CNSF training See Draft DOP Can you provide Ship Design Validation Tools TechA Achieve Paper HSI CNSF PPT Jan and ROI CD for A School Paper A HSI Total through

2002 provided Sailors per ERNT? Total HM&E dynamic design validation tools through Ship Design for CNSF Yes. LHD-8 Ship acquired by BIW & Ingalls for Modeling Design Crew LHD-8 Modeling Crew DD21 (DDX);by Avondale for PD17; by Model to forModeling SEAModel to Ingalls for CG47 Mod; Gibbs & Cox, Achieve for. SEA05D CSC Achieve JJMA and NAVSEA etc. HSI 05D . CSC HSI NAVSEA National Shipbuilding Research NSRP $$ to NSRP $$ to NSRP $$ to Program (NSRP), Increase US - international Simsmart to Simsmart Simsmart to 3/05 GAO Report 05-183: findings include Competitive Capability with an Advanced integrate with integrate with to integrate with ship design incomplete before Shipbuilding Enterprise (ASE) & Processes CATIA CAD for Intergraph CAD

AutoCAD (Ship production causing cost over run & Dynamic Validation for Dynamic Constructor) for deficient systems. Also see INSURV MSG: Validation Dynamic Validation PREINSURV Norfolk VA 181811Z July 05 LPD 17 is Navys First attempt at full digital design incorporating CAD and LPD17: 11 Vital Fluid systems LPD-17 Incomplete Physics Dynamic Validation, Selects validated with models for SIMSMART via competition Ingalls FSO CG 47 LCS Ships (did not use dynamic design validation = no model) NAVSEA. HVAC & Electrical not Mod dynamic validated design Validation / Ingalls sells idea DD21 Program CATIA CAD + Model: OAK e-DCAMS OAK DCTMS to DD21 Alliance DCAMS Simsmart Physics for Design Electrical Plant & Navy NAVSEA O5L4 Validation 13K Objects DDG1000 Simsmart Physics Program DD21 Dies DD(X) obtains Firemain 4K Physics to DDG1000 CATIA V5Simsmart Revs 15, 16, 17

Objective DD(X) begins Raytheon Phase 4 of DD(X) CATIABIW/ Ingalls Together = DD21 Alliance Objects CATIA V5 Revs 15, 16, 17 to continues Memorandum SIMSMART Both select Simsmart via Competition Chill Water 4K continues Katrina Flood Damage (POM) 5 years integration in Objects NGSS wins System of Dec 04 for Engineers at Ingalls scope CAD & dynamic again, as Record: Dynamic Design Validation using physics models Design Budget line Replace Dongle license plugs for SIMSMART NGSS Validation of Agent Protest DDX wins Fluid and DDX Dynamic Validation and Integration to Continue Starts DDX HVAC (Electrical TBD) PMS 430 BFTT Observes SIMSMART Physics Ship Model at SNAME 430 Has BFTT CS SIM-STIM;

14 www.ITEinc.US 4. Crafting a Design Environment to support SECNAV / NAVSEA / CNET Objectives 15 www.ITEinc.US Design Continuum Overview Construction Construction Detail Detail Design Design ShipOperates Operates Ship Contract Contract Design Design Preliminary Preliminary Design Design RDT&E- RDT&E Conceptual Conceptual Design Design Requirements Requirements erf V P & V I y r te r l Qua Future Future Modernization

Modernization orma n tion rifica e V ce Tests&&Trials Trials- Tests Commissioning Commissioning ContinuousCAD CAD==Does DoesititFit? Fit? Continuous SD/PMs IV&V Virtual Ship Model ContinuousPBD* PBD*== Does DoesititWork? Work? Continuous Ship Design / Program Mangers IV&V Rolling Total Ship Performance Verification (Quarterly?) *PBD = Physics Based Design Question? When in the Ship Design Process should the electric plant see the H&M plant? Why not from day one? 16 www.ITEinc.US Improve Efficiency of Program Management and Human Systems Integration Transformational Ship Design Process Improve & Control Design Support the Lifecycle ITE Inc. 1507A N Colonial Terrace, Arlington,. VA 22209 * [email protected] * www.ITEinc.US Integrated Ship Design Tools Spiral Design Common Parts

Spiral Design Process IV&V Conceptual Preliminary Contract Detail CAD = Design FITS PBD = Integrated Design WORKS LEAPS Smart Product Model w/Multi-Discipline Models Integrated w/ CAD Objectives: Program Control Performance Assessment Automation Reduced Crew Survivability Safety Deliver a Full Ship PBD Model to support Tests & Trials Tests & Trials T&T using the PBD model Virtual Ship Before & During Dock Trials T&T

of the Actual Ship Before & During Sea Trials All All Systems, Systems, Separately Separately & & Together Together Electrical Electrical Fluid Fluid Gas Gas HVAC HVAC Controls Controls Deliver HSI Lifecycle The Ship Shore & Afloat Dynamic Eng / DC & Total Ship Training Real-time Validated Dynamic Model of the Ship CAD Drawings

Update all configuration part numbers to the ERP TDKM IPDE Programs View ViewCompanion CompanionTechnical TechnicalPaper [email protected] @ http://www.businessdevelopmentusa.com/docs/HSISymTSDCJune2003.pdf http://www.businessdevelopmentusa.com/docs/HSISymTSDCJune2003.pdf (BFTT) Real-time Readiness Assessment ship systems (ICAS) Engineering & DC Operational Decision Aids Distance Support Future Ship Modernization 17 www.ITEinc.US Periodic Dynamic V&V Design Review Process HM&E Component and Systems Designers P&IDs CAD: It Fits Electrical Fluid LEAPS TeamCenter Environment

Gas HVAC Controls DC Periodic Dynamic V&V Performance Reviews System and Total Ship Every Phase / Step of Design Shipbuilder Smart Product Model Integrated CAD - Physics Physics: It Works, in real-time Will ships HM&E plant support ship & all missions / modules dynamically thru all scenarios? NAVSEA Technical Total Ship Model CAD & Physics by Deck All Systems Work Together PEO Ships 18 www.ITEinc.US ANZAC TPTS Propulsion Systems 19 www.ITEinc.US Summary: Applications of Multi-Discipline Physics-based Design Tools SECNAV NAVSEA Shipbuilding Objectives:

Demonstrate dynamic performance during RDT&E and all design phases System to total ship level Demonstrate Mission and HSI Performance Requirements Eliminate Risk Reduce Costs Model can be used as the specification Model can be re-used for all HSI Lifecycle Support Applications Mature tools: 19 year development to TLR-9 19 years Support to NAVSEA, Shipbuilders and Marine Engineering Companies Numerous ship design programs (see slide) Integration of CAD-Physics under NSRP - ASE Phase II: CATIA, ShipConstructor, Intergraph Demonstrated HSI Applications needed by CNET: SBIR Total Ship Model for Training (BFTT CS with HME&DC model real time cascading damage and recovery Captures all physics models (basis of design) as well as the CAD Currently Builder delivers only drawings, none of the math (intellectual property) ASNE-SNAME technical papers 2003-4: continuous IV&V Recommended all designs use continuous IV&V (Highlighted LCS program) Resulting Validated Ship Model Supports the Full Ship Lifecycle Training Decision Aids Modernization Distance Support / SORTS 20 www.ITEinc.US 5. Example of applying validated models: BFTT embedded training system SBIR 21 www.ITEinc.US TRL-8 and 9 Applications Physics Based Design to Human Systems Integration

For NAVSEA and CNET: Shore & Afloat Dynamic Eng / DC & Total Ship Training, Accession to BFTT Real-time Readiness Assessment of ship systems in support of ICAS Engineering & DC Operational Decision Aids Distance Support Future Ship Modernization 22 www.ITEinc.US Imperative Requirement for Validated HM&E Models Summarize CNET Memo 1 Feb 07 Imperative Need for Electronic Classrooms & Transportable training media CDROMS for fleet Accession and Embedded Training The Navy cut instructors betting on low cost PC simulation [like they saw, in part, @ HM&E SS demos in 2001 2002 (next 4 slides)] But NAVSEA reorganized in 2003, VADM LaFleur the champion retired and the initiative died. Next few slides are what VADM LaFleur requested, saw and wanted all of the necessary models would be a nearly free by product of a Navy ship design process based on continuous IV&V modeling for program management / managing the design 23 www.ITEinc.US PMS430 BFTT - Total Ship Training & Operational Decision Aids Architecture BOPC Debrief Products Scenario Generation & Control Performance Monitoring, Training & Assessment DATA COLLECTION LAN STOW LAN USN & Coalition Combat Systems Training TPTS

IT21 LAN / SWAN IT21 SWAN & 2-Way Wireless LAN Platform Simulation Two-way Central Control Station (CCS), Damage Control Central (DCC), Machinery Spaces, Repair Stations 2, 3, 5, 8, PERCIEVED TRUTH MCS GROUND TRUTH Trainer Trainer Wearable Computers DCAMS Trainee Trainee Training Flags Trainer Trainer Perceived Truth Ground Truth Trainee Trainee Perceived Truth Ship Interior Communications 24 www.ITEinc.US TPTS Instructor Station (1) 25

www.ITEinc.US Total Ship Training (TST) Integrated Continuum BFTT TSTS Damage Control Engineering Benefits: Full Fidelity at-Sea Individual and Team Training Training more relevant and more motivating at sea (SNA 2002) Fills SWOS Need for Engineering & Damage Control Training at Sea (SNA 2002) Based on Ships EOSS-EOP-EOCC-CSOSS Supports CDROM-based Individual Self Paced Training Supports SWOS / A-School Classroom Training Same Models Scaled Same HMI Look & Feel At Every Level of Training Validated HMEC&DC Ship Systems Dynamic Models Created During Ship Design or From Ship Design Data for Legacy Ships 26 www.ITEinc.US Application Across Training Continuum (Revolution in Training and Task Force Excel Concept) Performance and Debrief Products - Can be printed out or downloaded to floppy - Performance history, test scores, module completion status, etc. downloaded to floppy and imported into training database on arrival at ship Total Ship Training System LAN Based Training - Uses same models as CD-ROM and Total Ship Training System

- Updates training database - Provides performance and debrief products Enroute Training Initial Qualification Accession Training Refresher Training CD-ROM with Dynamic Engineering Models Tailored to assigned ship - Actual system configurations - Actual EOSS, EOCC, EOP, CSOSS, etc. Contains: Computer Based Training Lessons - Cognitive Learning Principles Incorporated Simulation Based Training Scenarios -Simulation Engine for interactive training 27 www.ITEinc.US Meeting Six Star Requirements for Design, Performance & Training Legacy Ships and Future Ships NAVSEA Design & HSI CNET / NAVPERS Manning & Training Control Design, Performance Cost and Schedule Instructor manning in decline Reduce Incidents: Improve Training, Performance, Maintenance & Distance Support (See COMNAVSEA Guidance April 2007) Imperative need for low cost PC Based Accession, In Route & Embedded Training (See CNET Memo Feb 2007) One Process Both Apps TSDC Design & HSI Process ASNE Technical Paper, Achieving Human Systems Integration through Design, June 2003 ASNE Technical Paper, Achieving Human Systems Integration through Design, June 2003 I/ITSEC Technical Paper, A Total Ship Crew Model to Achieve Human Systems Integration, December 2004 28

I/ITSEC Technical Paper, A Total Ship Crew Model to Achieve Human Systems Integration, December 2004 Available on ITE Website at www.ITEinc.US www.ITEinc.US Available on ITE Website at www.ITEinc.US One Design-HSI Process Supports NAVSEA & CNET Requirements Legacy Ships and Future Ships NAVSEA Design & HSI Achieves: CNET / NAVPERS Provided at little cost: Improved Control of Design, Performance, Cost and Schedule; Tools to Reduce & Respond to Incidents: Training, Performance, Maintenance & Distance Support Integrated Ship Design Tools Spiral Design Common Parts Spiral Design Process IV&V Conceptual Preliminary Contract Detail CAD = Design FITS PBD = Integrated Design WORKS LEAPS Smart Product Model w/Multi-Discipline Models Integrated w/ CAD Objectives: Program Control Performance Assessment Automation Reduced Crew Survivability Safety Deliver a Full Ship

PBD Model to support Tests & Trials Validated Dynamic HME&DC models for Eng Plant Operator Course low cost PC-Based Accession, In Route & Embedded Training. Tests & Trials T&T using the PBD model Virtual Ship Before & During Dock Trials T&T of the Actual Ship Before & During Sea Trials All All Systems, Systems, Separately Separately & & Together Together Electrical Electrical Fluid Fluid Gas Gas HVAC HVAC Controls

Controls Deliver HSI Lifecycle The Ship Shore & Afloat Dynamic Eng / DC & Total Ship Training Real-time Validated Dynamic Model of the Ship CAD Drawings Update all configuration part numbers to the ERP TDKM IPDE Programs (BFTT) Real-time Readiness Assessment ship systems (ICAS) Engineering & DC Operational Decision Aids Distance Support Future Ship 29 Modernization www.ITEinc.US

ITE Inc. 1507A N. Colonial Terrace Arlington, VA 22209 703-528-3711 Support SECNAV/ NAVSEA / CNET Transformation & Sea Enterprise Business Efficiency (Dynamic IV&V based Metrics) based on Visible, Integrated, Spiral Design Processes Reduce risk and cost in shipbuilding Support in Sea Enterprise savings Support HSI across all phases of the ship lifecycle Collect all Navy Intellectual Property not just drawings NAVSEA developed these tool sets over 8 years Return on Investment has been shown Tools are TLR 8 & 9 Way Ahead? References: ASNE Technical Paper, Achieving Human Systems Integration through Design, June 2003 I/ITSEC Technical Paper, A Total Ship Crew Model to Achieve Human Systems Integration, December 2004 Available on ITE Website at www.ITEinc.US 30 www.ITEinc.US Mission Effectiveness by Developing & Re-Applying Validated Simulation Models Integrated Design Doctrine Ship Design Automation Design Simulation Based Total Ship-Crew Model Validate Automation Reduced Manning Embedded M&S Based Training / Decision Aids Networked BG to Shore Individual to Total Crew Sailor accession training Operational, Threat & Damage Adaptive Autonomic (M&S Based) Reconfiguration Intelligent Agents Autonomic Response Integrated & Distributed Command Capabilities

Combat & Engineering Systems Personal On-Move PDA Communications & Control Electronic Navigation / M&S Based Decision Aids Security Access Points Remote Monitoring Core Model & Simulation Simulation Based Acquisition & Operation Integrated CAD-Physics Smart Product Model through all design phases, with dock & sea trial model validation, reuse of the validated model that will run in parallel during operations, supporting decision aids, ship wide performance monitoring to support all functions on this slide and future Alts & modernization Damage Control Autonomic Intelligent Agent SW M&S Based Reconfiguration Personal On-The Move Displays Combat Systems Engineering Systems Damage Control Electronic Manuals 3D Visualization Mission Readiness Local & Network within ship & across Battle Force platforms Combat Systems Engineering Systems Damage Control Distant Support EHM & CBM Electronic Manuals 3D Visualization Crew Location / Monitoring 31

www.ITEinc.US Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Definitions Technology Readiness Level Description 1. Basic Principles observed and reported. Lowest Level of Technology Readiness. Scientific research begins to be translated into applied research and development. Examples might include paper studies of a technologys basic properties. 2. Technology concept and/or application formulated. Invention begins. Once basic principles are observed, practical applications can be invented. Applications are speculative and there is no proof or detailed analysis to support the assumptions. Examples are limited to analytic studies. 3. Analytical and experimental critical functions and/or characteristic proof of concept. Active research and development is initiated. This includes analytical studies and laboratory studies to physically validate analytical predictions of separate elements of the technology. Examples include components that are not yet integrated or representative. 4. Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment. Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively low fidelity compared to the eventual system. Examples include integration of ad hoc hardware in laboratory. 5. Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant environment. Fidelity of breadboard technology increases significantly. The basic technological components are integrated with reasonably realistic supporting elements so that it can be tested in a simulated environment. Examples include high fidelity laboratory integration of components. 6. System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment. Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in technologys demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high fidelity laboratory environment, or in a simulated operational environment.

7. System prototype demonstration in an operational environment. Prototype near, or at, planned operational system. Represents a major step up from TRL 6, requiring demonstration of an actual system prototype in an operational environment, such as an aircraft, vehicle, or space. Examples include testing the prototype in a test bed aircraft. 8. Actual system completed and flight qualified through test and demonstration. Technology has been proven to work in its final form and under expected conditions. In almost all cases, TRL represents the end of the true system development. Examples include developmental test and evaluation of the system in its intended weapon system to determine if it meets design specifications. 9. Actual system flight proven through successful mission operations. Actual Application of the technology in its final form and under mission conditions, such as those encountered in operational test and evaluation. In almost all cases, this is the end of the last bug fixing aspects of system development. Examples include using the system under operational mission conditions. 32 www.ITEinc.US

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