The Standard Model Particles, Forces, and Other Fun Stuff By: Alex Ellis Quantum States To be considered in the same quantum state, the following must be identical: Some specification of momentum and position, where xp > h/4, where x and p are the uncertainties in xxp > h/4, where x and p are the uncertainties in p > h/4, where x and p are the uncertainties in , where xp > h/4, where x and p are the uncertainties in x and xp > h/4, where x and p are the uncertainties in p are the uncertainties in position and momentum, respectively. Spin The Pauli
Exclusion Principle Two objects can not occupy the same quantum state, in the same place, at the same time. Fermions - Particles that obey the Principle (spin = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2) ex. electrons, protons, all quarks Bosons - Particles that do not (spin = 0, 1, 2) ex. pion, photon, W+ Electromagnetic Force The electromagnetic force acts as a force vector, proportional to the product of the charges involved, and inversely to the square of the
distance. And it is EQUAL for both particles involved, regardless of which has higher charge! Feynman Diagrams A 2D representation of 1D motion, versus the passage of time Feynman diagrams are a convenient way of showing interactions. For example: This shows a virtual photon
being exchanged between two electrons, causing them to repel. The photon may exist for xp > h/4, where x and p are the uncertainties in t = h/(4, where x and p are the uncertainties in xp > h/4, where x and p are the uncertainties in E), where xp > h/4, where x and p are the uncertainties in E is the energy of the photon. This is the ONLY case in which Conservation of Energy can be violated. Quantum Electrodynamics and Anti-Particles Part of underlying symmetry in nature Identical mass, etc., except opposite charge Or, more precisely: An anti-particle is a particle moving
BACKWARDS through TIME! This is an illustration of the third concept here, which will be explained on the next slide. Explanation #1 of Pair Production 1. Electron and photon are traveling towards each other. 2. Photon splits into an electron and a positron traveling in opposite directions. 3. The initial electron and the produced positron annihilate, and form a photon.
But this is looking in the restricted mindset that time only travels in one direction, which is not true, since time is a dimension! Explanation #2 of Pair Production 1. An electron moves to the right. 2. It emits a photon to the left, then moves backwards in time, still moving to the right. 3. It emits a photon going back in time going to the right, and starts going forwards in time again. The photon going backwards in time can technically be called an anti-photon, but this is meaningless, since a photon is indistinguishable from its own anti-particle (since its charge is 0).
Quarks Three Quarks for Muster Mark! - Finnegans Wake Murray Gell-Mann. Freak with a name fetish, and also one of two independent discoverers of the quark, along with George Zweig. Types of Quarks Quarks have color and flavor, kind of like jelly belly jelly beans. Colors are red, green, blue, anti-red, anti-blue, anti-green.
Gluons and Quantum Chromodynamics (color force) Gluons are the force carriers of color charge There are 3x2 types of color charge, as opposed to 1x2 for electromagnetism. Unlike their electromagnetic analogue, photons, they carry two charges, as opposed to zero. An interesting consequence of this is that color force, or the strong force, INCREASES WITH DISTANCE!! Gluon Exchange Analgous with QED, gluon
exchange in QCD can be explained in two ways. 1. The gluon exchanged is of color red + anti-blue, so that the color change obeys conservation of charge on each end. 2. Or, we have red charge going forward in time, and blue going backwards in time, along the gluon. Unfortunately for our analogy with jelly belly, jelly beans can not change colors, unless theyre too old. Combinations of Quarks:
Baryons and Mesons Jelly Belly: Quarks: up + up + down = proton down + anti-bottom = B-zero To have a stable composite particle of quarks, color charge must be neutralized. This only occurs with red, green, and blue, or any color
and its anti-color. Baryons vs. Mesons Baryons Made of three quarks or anti-quarks All three colors or anti-color Mesons Made of one quark and one anti-quark The quark is the color of the anti-color of the anti-quark
So in general, the bound states of quarks in effect have a neutral color. Leptons Electron - symbol eElectrons, protons, and neutrons make up almost all matter in existence today. They orbit atomic nuclei, and your physics and chemistry teachers talk about them a lot. Muon - symbol - same, but heavier and almost never found in nature
Tauon - symbol - even heavier than that Neutrino - symbols e, , and Each corresponds one of the other leptons, and is a consequence of conservation laws. They are believed to have zero rest mass, and almost never interact with matter. In fact, we are constantly and unknowingly bombarded with them constantly. The Weak Force
Carried by W+, W-, and Z0 bosons Responsible for particle decay Acts more slowly than the strong force Acts on quarks and leptons Gravity We really dont understand gravity, but Einstein thought he did. So we tend to agree
that his approximations were OK. Oh yeah, and he invented that relativity thing. Generations of Matter I II III Up Quark Charm Quark
Top Quark Down Quark Strange Quark Bottom Quark Electron Muon Tauon Electron Neutrino
Muon Neutrino Tauon Neutrino Why is it like this? Thats one of the major mysteries today. Evidence based on neutrino masses indicate that a limit of three generations is probable, but there is no good explanation for this. Conservation Laws Strangeness (S) is conserved in strong force interactions Charge (Q) is conserved in all interactions Baryon number (B) is conserved in all interactions
Isospin component (I3) is conserved in all non-weak interactions Examples of Decays that Follow Conservation Laws Pion-Zero Decay 0 > +
B 0 0 0 I 1 0
0 (not conserved) I3 0 0 0 More Decays Lambda-Zero Decay, via Weak 0 >
n + 0 B 1 1 0
I3 0 -1/2 0 (I3 is not conserved via weak) Origin of Electrical Charge B is baryon number (or number of baryons present) S is strangeness (1 for s quark, -1 for anti-s) e is the elementary charge, 1.6 x 10-19 C I is isospin, where the number of particles in a family is 2I + 1
I3 is isospin component, which is related to sequence of a particle in a family, on the interval if (-I, I) Q = e (B/2 + S/2 + I3) Examples - Charges of p and 0 Proton Family: nucleons, I = 1/2 Members: n, p Family I3 range: (-1/2, 1/2) p corresponds to I3 = 1/2 p is a baryon, therefore B = 1 Q = e((1/2) + (1)/2 + (0)/2) = +e
Pion-Zero Family: pions, I = 1 Members: -, 0, + Family I3 range: (-1, 1) 0 corresponds to I3 = 0 0 is a meson, therefore B = 0 Q = e((0) + (0)/2 + (0)/2) =0 Unification, etc. Currently, there is a partial unification theory
of the electromagnetic and weak forces, or electroweak theory. Could all the forces unify, like this? Its a nice and elegant idea, but is it true? true Acknowledgements
www.jellybelly.com for stolen images www.particleadventure.com for more stolen images Alec Chechkin for, um... nevermind Dr. Stephen Arnold, for pissing of Alec Chechkin Ariel Smukler, for pissing him off even more Soupy J for the soup Anderson Huynh, for letting me win in arm-wrestling
Howard Wang, for not talking Mike Shick, for moving when I need the computer Ms. Leifer, for angry looks and infinite patience with us testosterone-fueled losers and finally Mr. Bucher for the water cooler!!!
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