The Tomotherapy Experience at Advocate Good Samaritan Hospital
The Tomotherapy Experience at Advocate Good Samaritan Hospital Mark Pankuch Todays Discussion The History of Radiation at Good Samaritan Quick Overview of the Tomotherapy Unit
Treatment population and Statistics of our experience Results from Shielding Comparison of plans Advocate Good Samaritan Treated first patient on May 13, 2002
Single Linac Vault with a Seimens Primus Hand me down GE CT scanner from radiology Paper-less / Film-less department Advocate Good Samaritan
Within two years reached capacity for a single Linac department Began offering HDR treatments Strong administrative and physician support for expansion Advocate Good Samaritan New Vault was needed
Doubling current patient volumes appeared as an over estimation for potential volume Present day IGRT with OBI not commonly available What did Tomotherapy Offer that Good Sam was missing? IGRT Top
End IMRT The Answer For Good Sam? Tomotherapy tomotherapy_T1.mov Tomotherapy MLC MLCs Oriented in the Sagital Plane The Treatment Process
Patient is set up on table to moveable lasers (2 min) High energy CT scan performed in the Tx Position (3 Min) New images are fused with planning CT images (3 Min) Adjustments are made for patient position (2 min)
Treatment is delivered (10 Min) Of Special Note on Hardware: No flattening filter Output ~ 900 MU / min Tx = 10,000 MU
MLCs very, very fast (us) Capable of MVCT export MVCT ~ 2-3 cGy Planning System
Single workstation for planning Cluster of 16 computers, w/ dual processors for computing. Optimizations done on beamlets that can be calculated overnight Very few contouring tools, need another system for contouring and fusions No planning review station, system not multitasking What type of patients have we treated?
Tomotherapy Patient Breakdown to Oct 2006 Abdomen Spine Female Pelvis Thorax Head / Neck Brain Male Pelvis 0 10 20 30 Number of Patients
40 50 60 Tomotherapy Not optimal for all treatment sites Rotational / Helical Treatments
Need the capability to give low doses to large areas of normal tissues Ability of cave out doses Very conformal, with good dose drop off Simultaneous Boost DQA
Tomotherapy Supplied Phantoms Film and Point dose taken on every patient Planning system has built-in QA tools Film analysis evaluated by calculating gamma index (Low et.al., Med Phys 25, 1998)
3% Dose 3mm DTA 40 DQA Results For First 143 Procedures 30 20 10 0 4.0 to 3.5 3.5 to 2.5 2.5 to 1.5 1.5 to 0.5 0.5 to -0.5 -0.5 to -1.5 -1.5 to -2.5 -2.5 to -3.5 -3.5 to -4.0 % Dif erence from Expected QA
cGy / MU cGy / min Lasers coincidence Table Accuracy Field Consistency MLC accuracy Clinical Outcomes
Pelvis patients decreased side effects Prostate patients no side effects (78Gy) Brain Patients get ring shape hair loss Head / Neck patients Still have skin reactions Considerably reduces reaction in mouth Need more time for long term results
Skin Reactions Shielding Considerations Large majority of shielding needed because of leakage Scatter Radiation Primary beam
Shielding Considerations X = W * U * T * ISF Workload: 30 Patients/day 10 min Tx time 880MU/min 66,000,000 MU/year
Usage Factors = 1 Occupancy Factor as usual Occupational areas kept to 10% of limits ISF from 3 meters Shielding Considerations, Leakage Leakage levels obtained from chart like CT scanner Leakage was measured and plotted as a function of position around the gantry and radial distance
All leaves closed for measurements Leakage fraction at 3 meters was used ISF from 3 meters Shielding Considerations, Scatter
Scatter levels a function of position around gantry Greatest at opening of couch With all leaves open, can be 186% of leakage exposure Clinically, the exposure can be reduced by a factor of 16
Maximum % scatter increase = 12%, I used 15% Shielding Considerations, Primary Unit has a built in Primary Beam Block, 13cm Pb The primary beam was 6.3% of the overall radiation at 2.5 cm from the isocenter
Clinically, the exposure can be reduced by a factor similar to scatter due to closed leaves I ignored reduction factor, and increased exposure by 6.3%. Shielding Results North Wall South Wall West Wall
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