Rhetorical Devices and Literary Terms Park 2005 Tragedy: Alas, an Unhappy Ending A tragedy is a play, novel, or other narrative that depicts serious and important events and ends unhappily
for the main character. Like the tragedies of the ancient Greeks, Shakespeares tragedies share these characteristics: Definition of Tragedy The main character is often high ranking and dignified, not an ordinary man or woman. The main character has a tragic flaw a
defect in character or judgment- that directly causes the characters downfall. The work ends unhappily, with the death of the main character. Rhetorical Devices Rhetoric skill in using language effectively and persuasively
Emotional appeal attempts to arouse the emotion of audience (loaded words) Logical appeal attempts to arouse the emotion through reasoning (facts, statistics) Ethical appeal attempts to arouse the feelings between right and wrong of the audience; based on the audiences perception of the speaker If the speaker is reputable, believable
- then believed Rhetorical question question asked for a purpose other than to obtain the information the question asks; more likely to be an accusation or an expression of feeling (Isnt it beautiful? Isnt he a crook?) Repetition act of repeating or being repeated
Paradox seemingly contradictory statement that may be true (The less you have the more free you are. You must lose your life to save it.) Paradox The silence of midnight, to speak truly, though apparently a paradox, rung in my ears" (Mary Shelley) "War is peace. "Freedom is slavery. "Ignorance is strength. (George Orwell, 1984)
"Some day you will be old enough to start reading fairy tales again. (C.S. Lewis to his godchild, Lucy Barfield, to whom he dedicated The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe) "There was only one catch and that was Catch-22, which specified that concern for one's own safety in the face of dangers that were real and immediate was the process of a rational mind. Orr was crazy and could be
grounded. All he had to do was ask; and as soon as he did, he would no longer be crazy and would have to fly more missions. Orr would be crazy to fly more missions and sane if he didn't, but if he was sane he had to fly them. If he flew them he was crazy and didn't have to; but if he didn't want to he was sane and had to." (Joseph Heller, Catch-22) More examples of Paradox You have to be cruel to be kind
Less is more Bad things happen to good people Well-known secret agent Mobilization for peace Parallel Structure I came, I saw, I conquered. I have a dream that. same pattern of words to show
that two or more ideas have the same level of importance Mary likes to hike, to swim, and to ride a bicycle. Mary likes hiking, swimming, and riding a bicycle. Loaded words (diction) strong emotional overtones or connotations and which evoke
strongly positive (or negative) reactions N- word Anorexic vs thin Plant vs weed Terrorist vs freedom fighter from "Kubla Khan", by Samuel Taylor Coleridge build the effect of beauty and enchantment: In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
A stately pleasure-dome decree; Where Alph, the sacred river, ran, Through caverns measureless to man, Down to a sunless sea. So twice five miles of fertile ground With walls and towers were girdled round: And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills, Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree; And here were forests ancient as the hills, Enfolding sunny spots of greenery. But oh! that deep romantic chasm which slanted Down the green hill athwart a cedarn cover!
A savage place! as holy and enchanted As e'er beneath a waning moon was haunted By woman wailing for her demon-lover! -- Anecdotes Personal story that illustrates a point Charlotte Church (English): Being in America During a concert in December 2002, Charlotte Church kindly told her audience that she loved being in America. When her comment was met with a stony silence, Church
sang "The Christmas Song (Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire)" and quickly left the stage. Some time later, she reappeared to make an announcement: "Someone told me backstage that we're in Canada... I'm sorry!" Literary Terms Tragedy play that ends unhappily for the main character Ex: Romeo DIES; Juliet DIES Tragic hero Admirable or noble
hero who has a personal failing that leads to his/her downfall Tragic flaw a failing that leads a character to make choices that result in tragedy Ex: Idealistic, Too trusting, Indecisive Ex: Romeos Flaw: Impatience I love Rosaline.
I love Juliet. (several hours later) I cant be with her. I want to die. Comedy - play that ends happily. main character gets what he wants Charater foil or dramatic foil character who contrasts dramatically with another character; person makes another seem better by contrast;
In jewelry making, foil placed behind a jewel to increase its brilliance. In its literary use, foil works in same way: character set near another to increase the key character's brilliance Ex: Batman/Robin Mature/immature Ex: Romeo/Mercutio Serious/Playful Dialogue - conversation Monologue LOOOONG speech by
1 person to one or more on stage Soliloquy speech by 1; solo on stage Aside line spoken by an actor to the audience but not intended for others on the stage Works Cited Tracis for Lit terms
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