The Tragedy of Julius Caesar

The Tragedy of Julius Caesar

THE TRAGEDY OF MACBETH William Shakespeare The English Renaissance Anglo-Saxon Period: 449-1066 Medieval Period: 1066 (Battle of Hastings)- 1485 (War of the Roses) Renaissance: 1485- 1625 (King James I dies)

Advancements Associated with pan-European Renaissance that started in Italy in the 14th-century Invention of the printing press popularized literature written in Modern English (the language of the common people) Plays were the outstanding legacy of the period (what Italy produced in visual art, England produced in the written word and music)

William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Kyd, Edmund Spenser, Thomas Wyatt, among others The Notorious Tudor Dynasty 1485 (War of the Roses) to 1603 (death of Queen Elizabeth I) The Tudor Rose: A combination of the white (York) and the red (Lancaster)

Henry VII Seized control of the Monarchy at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, and later married Elizabeth of York to form the Tudor line Asserted control over Ireland in 1542, uniting the two countries under one crown Father to Henry VIII

Henry VIII (1491-1547) King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death Known for his 6 marriages and for separation from the Catholic Church Notorious for executing those who stood in his way: reports range from 57,00072,000 Marriage #1: Catherine of Aragon

Catherine, a devout Catholic and daughter of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella was first married to Henrys younger brother Arthur, but after 20 weeks of marriage, Arthur died at the age of 15. To keep the alliance between England and Spain secure, Henrys father and Queen Isabella struck a deal for Henry to marry the now widowed Catherine, and they married in 1509 when Henry had become king at the age of 14. After three miscarriages and the death of a son, Catherine gave birth to Mary, who would later become the notorious Bloody Mary for burning 280 Protestant dissenters at the stake. Henry had many mistresses during this time and became particularly infatuated with one- Anne Boleyn and as he was growing impatient

with Catherines inability to produce a male heir, he decided to annul his marriage to Catherine. The Catholic Church was THE CHURCH of Europe and disallowed divorce. He appealed to the pope, claiming that his marriage to Catherine had not been a true marriage because she had consummated her marriage to her brother and was therefore not a virgin up on their marriage. The pope disagreed with this summation, so Henry created his own Protestant church: The Church of England. Marriage #2: Anne Boleyn

Henry had already fathered two illegitimate children with Annes sister Mary, but Anne played a little harder to get. She was the lady in waiting to Catherine (a.k.a. assistant or servant), so the king had access to her. He banished Catherine from court and married Anne (a Protestant supporter) in 1533. His daughter Mary was declared illegitimate. (motivation for Bloody Mary?) Anne gave birth to a daughter who would become Queen Elizabeth I: the royal patron of Shakespeare. A few miscarriages later (including one of a son), and Henry grew impatient for a male heir once again. Meanwhile, Henry had grown infatuated with another woman: Jane Seymour. Anne knew her position was at risk, and she was accused of conspiracy, adultery, incest, and possible witchcraft. She was executed at Tower Green on 17 May 1536. Marriage #3: Jane Seymour

Henry married Jane Seymour 10 days after the execution of Anne Boleyn. The next year, Jane gave birth to a son (who would later become King Edward VI at the age of 9 but would only live until the age of 16), but Jane died during childbirth, leaving Henry as a widower. He declared his daughter with Anne (Elizabeth) illegitimate and announced his son Edward as the heir to the throne. Marriage #4: Anne of Cleves

This marriage was a arranged based upon a portrait only that Henry would later claim to be overly-flattering of Anne, but Henry was not attracted to Anne once they married. The marriage was never consummated, so he had it annulled. Marriage #5: Catherine Howard Henry married Catherine on the same day that he had Oliver Cromwell executed. She was a lady-in-waiting to

Anne Boleyn. She had an affair with another man and got caught! Henry had her executed on 13 February 1542. Marriage #6: Catherine Parr Henrys final wife. She helped to reconcile him with his two daughters: Mary and Elizabeth. Later on, the girls were re-legitimized as heirs to the throne. The Rhyme Divorced, beheaded and died Divorced, beheaded, survived I'm Henry VIII, I had 6 sorry wives

Some might say I ruined their lives... Final Years Henry became obese with a waist that measured 54 inches. He had to be moved around using mechanical inventions, and he was covered with painful boils. His obesity stemmed from a jousting accident in 1536 that left him with an ulcerated leg wound that doctors found difficult to treat, so he was not able to maintain his physical activities.

He was buried next to Jane Seymour the one wife that gave him the male heir. From Henry to Elizabeth to James I After Henry died, his son Edward took the throne but died at the age of 16. This brought up the issue of succession. Edward didnt want Mary to inherit the throne for fear that shed re-Catholicize England, but he couldnt disown Mary without disowning Elizabeth, too. So, he named

Lady Jane Grey, his first cousin, as the heir. She is called The Nine Days Queen because after Edward died, she was executed for treason, and the crown went to its rightful heir: Mary. Mary was notorious for trying to reinforce the Catholic beliefs that her father had destroyed in England and so burned religious dissenters at the stake. Her half-sister Elizabeth was a supporter of the Church of England like her mother Anne Boleyn and was even imprisoned by Mary for a time at the notorious Tower of London. Mary did not produce an heir, so upon her death, Elizabeth became the Queen of England, and a time of true Renaissance with peace, culture, and the arts was born. Elizabeth didnt produce an heir either, so upon her death, the throne fell to her cousin James of Scotland, who became the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, uniting all three kingdoms under one crown. Queen Elizabeth: 15331603

Queen from 1558 until her death in 1603 Also called The Virgin Queen because she never married and never had any children- she was married to her country. Moderate in governmental rule and tolerant of religious differences- a time of peace between Catholics and Protestants Imprisoned and executed Mary Queen of Scots (her cousin Jamess mother) out of fear that the queen (who was allied with the French) would invade England and usurp her power.

The English theatre prevailed under her reign with playwrights such as William Shakespeare. Shakespearean Tragedy The Tragedy of Macbeth Aristotles Poetics Tragedy is an imitation of a serious and complete action of some magnitudePlot is the imitation of actionTragedy is an imitation, not of human beings but of action, life, happiness, and unhappiness.

Mimesis- imitation of action the principal means whereby tragedy makes its effects are the parts of the plot: reversals of fortune and recognition scenes. Anagnorisis- recognition Peripeteia- a reversal Poetics Continued Every tragedy, then, must have six parts on which its quality depends: plot, character, speech, mind, spectacle, and melodyPlot, then, is the starting point, the soul as it were, of tragedy; and character comes next.

Poetics Continued The plot, too, should be one, just as in other arts of imitation there is a unified imitation of one thing. Since it is an imitation of action, it should be about one whole action; the parts should be combined in such a way as to make a difference to and disturb the whole if one part is moved from its position or taken away altogether. Anything the presence or absence of which goes unnoticed is no real part of the whole. In Laymans Terms

Hero has ONE SINGLE problem. Hero tries to solve the problem, but the hero makes the problem worse. Hero has to deal with the worsened problem. Hero either solves the problem (COMEDY) OR hero is solved by the problem (TRAGEDY: ANAGNORISIS). No Deus ex Machina Plainly, the unraveling of the plot should spring

from the plot itself, and not from the deus ex machina, as in the Medea, or in the way in which the events concerning the sailing away in the Iliad do. The deus ex machina should be used to deal with events that lie outside the dramaeither things that have happened beforehand, but of which humans cannot know; or things that are to happen and need to be announced Deus ex machina= machine of the gods/ supernatural intervention Catharsis By means of pity and fear, it contrives to purify the emotions of pity and fear.

Catharsis- purging of pity and fear Fear and pity can be aroused by purely visual effects, or they can be aroused by the actual structure of the plot; the reaction is more fundamental in the second case, and he will be the better poet who brings it about. For quite independently of what one may see, the plot should be so composed that anyone who hears the vents related shudders and feels pity at what is happening; this certainly happens to anyone who hears the story of Oedipus. TRAGEDY A fictional work depicting the fall of a

person of high degree Essential difference between tragedy and comedy: their depiction of human nature Comedy: dwells on human weakness Tragedy: emphasizes human Comedy vs.greatness Tragedy The Tragic Hero The tragic hero is a person of noble stature, meaning that s/he is not a normal individual but one who is great in two respects:

Social importance (usually a prince or king) The possession of an extraordinary quality (passion, aspiration, nobility of mind, etc.) The heros misfortune is not wholly deserved. What most impresses us about the tragic hero is his/her greatness, not his/her weakness. The heros fall results in some increase in awareness, some gain in self-knowledge. There are two sides to this

gain in knowledge: His/her responsibility for the fall A significant insight, not just an increase in knowledge but in wisdom. The tragic hero is imperfect, his/her fall resulting from that imperfection, i.e., the tragic hero is responsible for his/her own fall. Aristotle: an act of injustice committed either 1) out of ignorance or 2) with the belief that some greater good will be served. His term for it:

hamartia. Later critics: a defect of character, or tragic flaw or overweening pride (hubris) Other critics: not a lack Essential Action The Fall Suffering Tragic hero makes a mistake and

compromi ses As a result of a tragic mistake, loses his/her place in society Reconciliati on Experiences insight Takes responsibility for his/her fall, which

Terms Aside- words spoken by a character intended to be heard by the audience while other characters are onstage; a characters inner thoughts Soliloquy- words spoken by a character alone onstage to the audience; reveals innermost thoughts

Blank Verse- unrhymed iambic pentameter Comic Relief- a humorous episode in a tragedy intended to break the tension or heighten the emotional impact by means of contrast; also foreshadows trouble Foil- two characters in the same situation/ status in society that contrast in order to highlight facets of the main characters personality Dramatic Irony- When the audience knows something that a character does not know. This builds suspense. Macbeth Shakespeares Source=

Holinsheds Chronicles Shortest play- probably written in 1606 Written as a tribute to James I Witches- demonology Banquo- ancestors Divine right of kings Blank verse with prose (mad scene, drunken porter scene)

Setting: Anglo-Saxon period Scotland Motifs Blood/water Supernatural Light/dark Appearance/ reality

Animals Essential Themes Trusting appearances can lead to downfall. Unchecked ambition leads to corruption. Main Characters

Macbeth- noble soldier who learns that he is to be king from the witches/ acts on the witches prophecies Banquo- Macs friend/ foil character/ does not act on the witches prophecies Lady Macbeth- Mac.s wife/ strong, resolute/ wants her hubby to be king more than he does Duncan- King of Scotland, good king, poor judge of character

Macduff- noble soldier Malcolm & Donalbain- Duncans two sons The Witches tell Macbeth and Banquo their futures Hecate the head witch who rules the three witches

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