The Yuan Dynasty Pages 180-183 The Mongols!! Mongols were nomads that lived in Northern China In 1206, a powerful ruler, or Khan, united the Mongols into a powerful army.
His name was Temujin, but after rising to power, he was given a new name: GHENGIS KHAN which means Universal Ruler. Mongol conquests in Asia and Eastern Europe. The Mongols were notorious for being a highly efficient fighting force. The Mongol eventually empire extended from Eastern Europe all the way to China. People were terrorized by the attacks and the Mongols were known for killing EVERYONE in a town or city
they invaded. Genghis Khan began moving into China in 1211 and when he died in 1227, all of Northern China was under Mongol control. The Mongol Empire. Mongols continue to conquer China Ghengis Khans sons and grandsons continued conquering Southern China.
In 1260, Kublai Khan, Genghis Khans grandson became ruler of the Mongol empire. Kublai Khan completed the conquest of China and in 1279, and declared himself emperor. The Yuan Dynasty was established under Kublai Khans rule. This time
period was also called the Mongol Ascendancy. For the first time, foreigners ruled all of China. Life during the Yuan dynasty The Chinese did not like being ruled by foreigners like the Mongols. They saw the Mongols as uncivilized. Kublai Khan did not force the Chinese to follow the Mongol way of life. Many Mongols adopted Chinese customs (Confucianism).
Mongols made sure that Confucianism did not influence the government (to maintain control). The Mongols taxed the Chinese heavily. With revenue from taxes, the Mongols: Extended the grand canal. Built new palaces. Improved Chinas roads that were part of the postal system. Built a new capital, Dadu, (also called Khanbaliq) near present-day Beijing.
Trade during the Yuan dynasty The Mongol armies protected trade in and around China. Mongol leaders welcomed foreign traders. Sea trade continued with India, Southeast Asia and Arabia. The most famous trader to travel to China was Marco Polo. Marco Polo travelled around China between 1271 and 1295. Marco Polo in China:
-Was respected by the Mongols. -Served in Kublai Khans court. -His writings of China made Europeans very curious about China. The end of the Yuan Dynasty
The Mongols tried to invade Japan in 1274 but were unsuccessful. The failed campaign weakened the Mongol army. The expensive works projects also weakened the economy of China.
In 1368, Zhu Yuangzhang led a sucessful rebellion against the Mongol leaders. China was once again under Chinese rule.
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