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Theme 4 AO2 No Hard Determinism Religious arguments Philosophy Are we truly free? Soft determinism Yes Libertarianism Religious arguments

Philosophy Pelagius Augustine Psychology Calvin Science Implications Psychology Arminius Science Implications

Issues for analysis and evaluation will be drawn from any aspect of the content above, such as: 1. A consideration of whether religious believers should accept predestination. 2.The extent to which God predestines humanity. 3. The extent to which philosophical, scientific and/or psychological determinism illustrate that humanity has no free will. 4. Strengths and weaknesses of Hard and/or Soft Determinism. 5. Whether moral responsibility is an illusion. 6. The extent to which pre-destination influences our understanding of God 7. How convincing are religious views on free will.

8. The extent to which an individual has free choice. 9. The extent to which philosophical, scientific and/or psychological views on libertarianism inevitably lead people to accept libertarianism. 10. The extent to which free moral agents should follow a normative ethic. 11. The degree to which free will makes the use of prayer irrelevant. 12. The degree to which beliefs about free will can be reconciled with beliefs about predestination Predestination Vs Free Will 1, 2, 7, 8 and 10 Predestination Predestination and Free Will are compatible Free Will 2 Corinthians 9:7 says Since they hated knowledge and did not choose

to fear the Lord. Only belief in free choice can counter complacency! Reward/punishment only makes sense with choice! Choice and not predestination is a better fit with a loving God! Evaluating predestination and Free Will For pre destinination Point Credible Bible Theologians Historical acceptance Concepts of God Against predestination a A consideration of whether religious believers should accept

predestination. 1. Why would religious believers accept predestination? If it was credible Religious texts support it Theological support e.g. Augustine and Calvin Historical acceptance e.g. Councils of Carthage and Dort (accepted TULIP) Monotheistic ideas about God 2. Why would religious believers reject predestination? If it was credible If religious texts opposed it Theological support for Free Will e.g. Pelagius and Arminius Historical acceptance e.g. Methodist Church Monotheistic ideas about God The extent to which God predestines humanity. To a large extent Religious texts (as previously)

Theological arguments and historical support Conclusion To a lesser extent Religious texts Job 14:5 omniscient God, Free Will John 8:36 If the Son sets you free, you will be free indeed. Theological arguments and historical support. Augustine humanity born with Free Will (soft determinism) Determinism (Soft and Hard)Vs Libertarianism 3, 4 and 9 Determinism strengths Philosophy - John Locke is right

Scientific determinism is right DNA Libertarianism strengths Quantum mechanics A fundamental concept in quantum mechanics is hat of randomness, or indeterminancy. In general, the theory predicts only the probability of a certain result Bowie Psychological is right Pavlov Weaknesses of Libertarianism Philosophical no evidence Scientific not accepted by whole scientific community Psychological Rogers other ideas within psychological are supported with more evidence Weaknesses of Determinism The deterministic mechanical view of the world is wrong. No evidence for Lockes theory

Strengths and weaknesses of Hard Determinism. Idea Philosophical Strengths Lockes theory of universal causation, if this view is correct then we must be determined. Supported by William James Scientific DNA shows all humans have fixed scientific formula. Dennett genetic fixity Psychological Pavlov claimed all our actions are conditioned reactions to our environment The cumulative effect of all the arguments

Problems with cumulative arguments Flews leaky bucket analogy Weaknessess Locke doesnt successfully prove hard determinism, his theory challenges libertarianism but doesnt show determinism is correct. Sartre said there is no God and humanity is condemned to freedom Science does not illustrate humanity is predetermined. Dr Sirigu found free will in the parietal cortex of the brain Psychology does not show humanity is predetermined. Carl Rogers claimed children can be conditioned but through getting in touch with real feelings moral agents can have free will. Strengths and weaknesses of Soft Determinism Strengths

Weaknesses Hobbes view is supported by Ayers empirical evidence of the use of language e.g. caused and forced Ayer was a logical positivist not just opinion but supported by evidence (synthetic not meaningless) Easier for humans to accept as we feel free Gives us a moral right to punish people No real distinction between soft and hard determinism Both accept moral agents will is determined wholly by external factors Cant be both free and determined William James a quagmire of

evasion Moral responsibility Vs no moral responsibility Moral responsibility is an illusion Moral responsibility is not an illusion Free moral agents should follow normative ethics Moral agents are not free and cant follow normative ethics Whether moral responsibility is an illusion. Moral responsibility is an illusion. 1. Hard determinism and predestination 2. Augustine and James 3. Spinoza 4. Philosophical - John Locke sleeping man in a room analogy (Spinoza) 5. Psychological - Skinner 6. Harris what we think of as FW is just

luck so not moral responsibility 7. Legal cases and MAOA Moral responsibility is not an illusion. 1. Libertarianism 2. Pelagius God has given humanity FW so humans have moral responsibility 3. Arminius God does not force his will, however, he also claims the Holy Spirit acts as the moral agents moral guide 4. Sartre condemned to freedom 5. Irenaeaus Epistemic distance 6. Dennett we have FW to choose from a limited number of choices 7. Our society punishes law breakers so actions must be done freely The degree to which free will makes the use of prayer irrelevant. Prayer is irrelevant Prayer is relevant

The extent to which pre-destination influences our understanding of God Large The extent to which pre-destination influences our understanding of God Predestination completely influences our understanding of God 1. Predestination leads to religious beliefs such as the absolute power and providence of God omnipotent Calvin and Augustine 2. All human beliefs would have been predestined by God, including the belief in God 3. Omnibenevolent -Augustine God is merciful, because He should have predestined everyone to hell but saved some. God is omnibenevolent 4. Miracles Lewis God could intervene to perform miracles to remind humans of his

omnipotent nature. Predestination does not completely influence our understanding of God 1. Free will illustrates Gods omnipotent nature 2. Arminius Holy Spirit in all humanity 3. Cant predestine and be omnibenevolent. Plantinga and the robots 4. God cant respond to prayers for miracles if we are predestined Believers have ideas about God that influence their ideas about predestination Gods sovereignity

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