Theories in Linguistics

Theories in Linguistics

Introduction To Linguistics Week 5 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 THEORIES in LINGUISTICS 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007

Ferdinand de Saussure (18571913) 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 Ferdinand de saussure The father of modern linguistics Saussure's most influential work, Course in

General Linguistics (Cours de linguistique gnrale), was published posthumously in 1916 by former students Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye on the basis of notes taken from Saussure's lectures at the University of Geneva. 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 Langue and parole in his book Cours de linguistique generale, Saussure proposed the terms langage, langue and parole.

langage: language in general langue : a particular language parole : the language of an individual 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 langue The system of language, that is the arrangement of sounds and words which speakers of a language have a

shared language of or agree to use The ideal form of language 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 parole The actual use of language by people in speech or writing 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007

Diachronic vs. synchronic view of linguistics 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 Diachronic view Diachronic linguistics views the historical development of a language.

We can go back and forth in time, watching the language with all its features change. E.g. the change in sound system of English from old English to modern English 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 Synchronic view

Synchronic linguistics views a particular state of a language at some given point in time. This could mean Modern English of the present day, or the systematic analysis of the system of Shakespeare's English. E.g. the modern system of modern English

01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 structuralism Modern linguistics, following Ferdinand de Saussure, is primarily interested in the synchronic point of view. Saussure postulated the priority of synchrony: no knowledge of the historical development of a

language is necessary to examine its present system. He arrived at this radical viewpoint due to his conviction that linguistic research must concentrate on the structure of language. Later, the whole paradigm was hence called structuralism 01/28/20

intro2ling/ssn/2007 Theory of signs (semiotics) In linguistics, the sign has two faces which cannot be separated signifie thing meant signifiant or signifier the accoustic image 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 Descriptive vs prescriptive

Prescriptive - the 19th century grammar was prescriptive - how the laNguage shoud be Descriptive - acc. To Saussure, linguists job is to describe, not to prescribe 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 Paradigmatic vs. syntagmatic Paradigmatic

any link in chain of speech will suggest any other language units to us, because the units either resemble or differ from each other in form and meaning. e.g. the word teaching 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 Remind us of other words that have

ing ending: working, eating, talking, etc Other compounds of teach: teacher, taught, teaches Other words with similar meaning and form: tutor, mentor, lecturer Words different in both form and meaning: chalk, whiteboard 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 syntagmatic Syntagmatic relation holds between

the successive members of a given chain e.g: If I have money I will buy a car One of the books is 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 Noam Chomsky 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007

Noam Chomsky in the past received various death threats because of his criticisms of U.S foreign policy. stated that he continues to reside in the United States because he believes it remains the "greatest country in the world,"

01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 Syntactic structures The theory takes utterances (sequences of words) to have a syntax which can be (largely) characterised by a formal grammar; in particular, a Context-free grammar extended with transformational rules.

A phrase/sentence has its internal structure 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 Children are hypothesised to have an innate knowledge of the basic grammatical structure common to all human languages (i.e. they assume that any language which they

encounter is of a certain restricted kind). This innate knowledge is often referred to as universal grammar. 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007 Generative grammar The Chomskyan approach towards syntax is often termed generative grammar

Chomskyan syntactic analyses are often highly abstract, and are based heavily on careful investigation of the border between grammatical and ungrammatical constructs in a language. Such grammatical judgments can only be made accurately by a native speaker, 01/28/20 intro2ling/ssn/2007

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