Theory of Constraints Scheduling APICS PDM January 14, 2009 Bottlenecks Bottlenecks typically have less capacity then the proceeding and following operations Limit the output of an organization Managers should focus on identifying and eliminating them
Eliminating bottlenecks: Increase capacity at the bottleneck Cross train and insure maximum utilization at the bottleneck Develop alternate procedures or routings Move inspection to before the bottleneck Schedule to match the capacity of the bottleneck Theory of Constraints
The Theory of Constraints Goal is to maximize flow through the entire system Emphasizes balancing flow Improve performance of bottleneck: Determine what is constraining the operation Exploit the constraint Subordinate everything to the constraint Determine how to overcome the constraint Repeat the process for the next constraint Theory if Constraints Metrics
Throughput the rateat which the system generates money through sales Physical assets the total system investment Inventory Buildings and land Plant and equipment Operating expense money the system spends to convert inventory into throughput Theory if Constraints Metrics
Throughput the rateat which the system generates money through sales Physical assets the total system investment Inventory Buildings and land Plant and equipment Operating expense money the system spends to convert inventory into throughput Theory of Constraints
Applying the TOC 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify the constraints Develop a plan for overcoming the constraint Focus resources on overcoming the constraint Off-load work or increase capacity at the constraint
5. Go back to step one and identify the next constraint Priority Rules for Dispatching Jobs FCFS - first come, first served SPT - shortest processing time EDD - earliest due date LPD longest processing time
CR - Critical ratio Rush - emergency Top Priority Critical Ratio Computed by dividing the time remaining until the due date by the work remaining If the Critical Ratio is less than one, the job is behind schedule
CR = Time Remaining Workdays Remaining Drum Buffer Rope Drum is the schedule as it sets the pace of production The buffer is the potentially constraining resources outside the bottleneck The buffer is a small amount of inventory in front of the bottleneck operation to minimize idle time at the
bottleneck The rope is the synchronizing of the sequence of operations to ensure the effective use of the bottleneck operation The goal of DBR is to maximize output and shorten lead times while the minimizing the inventory needed Delta Airlines 2005 Filed for Bankruptcy Recovery Plan: Tech Operations Group revenues $ 270 Million
+20% revenue, + 20% turnaround time No capital investment No increase in labor Key Elements of the Plan Use the system constraint to set the drumbeat Repair and support shops
Manage queue first in-first out Delay assembly until all parts are available Synchronize parallel activities with CMM Limit expediting by rule set Use flexibility to respond to variation Adopt a doctrine of accountability
DBR at Delta Rope was set at 15 days: 5 days of work content plus 10 days buffer time Process by FIFO Any jobs in shop longer than 10 days are labeled red Red labeled jobs go to the front of the queue Expedited parts are marked Green and limited to 20 at any one time (.2%)
Prioritization Rules 1. all parts with green expedite tags, 2. red items in order of due date, 3. all other items in first in, first out order. The Results In one year, the repair and support shops decreased turnaround times on parts by 40 percent, increased throughput by 18 percent, and cut WIP levels in half. In addition, Delta was able to increase the total engine maintenance workload from customers outside of
Delta Airlines by 33 percent. As for the bottom line, not only did Deltas Tech Ops Group meet its 2006 revenue goal of $270 million, but the company also exceeded that goal by $42 million
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