Thermodynamics Chapter 1 - Louisiana Tech University

Thermodynamics Chapter 1 - Louisiana Tech University

engel Boles Thermodynamics Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Third Edition Yunus A. engel Michael A. Boles Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill WCB/McGraw-Hill The The McGraw-Hill McGraw-Hill Companies, Companies, Inc.,1998 Inc.,1998

1 CHAPTER engel Boles Thermodynamics Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998 What is thermodynamics? The study of thermodynamics is concerned with ways energy is stored within a body and how energy transformations, which involve heat and work, may take place.

Approaches to studying thermodynamics Macroscopic (Classical thermodynamics) engel Boles Thermodynamics study large number of particles (molecules) that make up the substance in question does not require knowledge of the behavior of individual molecules Microscopic (Statistical thermodynamics) concerned within behavior of individual particles (molecules) study average behavior of large groups of individual particles Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998

1-1 Applications of Thermodynamics engel Boles Thermodynamics The human body Air-conditioning systems Car radiators Airplanes Power plants Refrigeration systems Third Edition

WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998 Thermodynamic Systems Thermodynamic System quantity of matter or a region of space chosen for study Boundary real or imaginary layer that separates the system from its surroundings Surroundings physical space outside the system boundary Types of Systems Closed Open engel Boles Thermodynamics Third Edition

WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998 1-2 Closed Systems (fixed masses) Energy, not mass, crosses closed-system boundaries (Fig. 1-13) engel Boles Thermodynamics Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998 1-3 Closed System with Moving Boundry

engel Boles Thermodynamics Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998 1-4 Open Systems (Control Volumes) Mass and Energy Cross Control Volume Boundaries engel Boles Thermodynamics Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998

Isolated System engel Boles Closed system where no heat or work (energy) may cross the system boundary typically a collection of the a main system (or several systems) and its surroundings is considered an isolated system Thermodynamics Isolated system boundary work system heat Surr 1 Surr 2 mass

Surr 3 Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998 Total Energy of a System engel Boles Thermodynamics Sum of all forms of energy (i.e., thermal, mechanical, kinetic, potential, electrical, magnetic, chemical, and nuclear) that can exist in a system For systems we typically deal with in this course, sum of internal, kinetic, and potential energies E = U + KE + PE E = Total energy of system U = internal energy

KE = kinetic energy = mV2/2 PE = potential energy = mgz Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998 1-5 Systems Internal Energy Systems Internal Energy = Sum of Microscopic Energies (Fig. 1-19) engel Boles Thermodynamics Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998

Properties engel Boles Thermodynamics Any characteristic of a system in equilibrium is called a property. Types of properties Extensive properties - vary directly with the size of the system Examples: volume, mass, total energy Intensive properties - are independent of the size of the system Examples: temperature, pressure, color Extensive properties per unit mass are intensive properties. specific volume v = Volume/Mass = V/m density = Mass/Volume = m/V Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998 State & Equilibrium engel Boles Thermodynamics State of a system system that is not undergoing any change all properties of system are known & are not changing if one property changes then the state of the system changes Thermodynamic equilibrium equilibrium - state of balance A system is in equilibrium if it maintains thermal (uniform temperature), mechanical (uniform pressure), phase (mass of two phases), and chemical equilibrium Third Edition

WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998 Processes & Paths engel Boles Thermodynamics Process when a system changes from one equilibrium state to another one some special processes: isobaric process - constant pressure process isothermal process - constant temperature process isochoric process - constant volume process isentropic process

- constant entropy (Chap. 6) process Path series of states which a system passes through during a process Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998 1-7 Compression Process engel Boles Thermodynamics Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998

1-6 engel Boles Quasi-Equilibrium Processes System remains practically in equilibrium at all times Thermodynamics Easier to analyze (equations of state can apply) Work-producing devices deliver the most work Work-consuming devices consume the least amount of work Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998

State Postulate & Cycles engel Boles Thermodynamics State Postulate The thermodynamic state of a simple compressible substance is completely specified by two independent intensive properties. Cycles A process (or a series of connected processes) with identical end states P 2 Process B

Process 1 A V Third Edition WCB/McGraw-Hill The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1998

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • The Structure and Funding of the U.S. Health

    The Structure and Funding of the U.S. Health

    Looking up Information on the health care system Different types of Information: Background Gray literature Statistics Research and journal articles International health care resources Background Resources that offer descriptive and consumer level information on various health care issues and topics...
  • Teaching Social Studies to English Language Learners

    Teaching Social Studies to English Language Learners

    Pedagogical Spaces in Teaching Social Studies to English Language Learners. Gerardo Aponte-Martinez. ... & Guberman, S. (2006). Introducing Historical Thinking to Second Language Learners: Exploring What Students Know and What They Want to Know. ... Teaching Social Studies to English...
  • College Growth - wofford.edu

    College Growth - wofford.edu

    Wofford CollegeheaLth insurance update. Chris Gardner, Chief Financial Officer. Chee Lee, Director of Human Resources
  • Carbon NanoTube(CNT) Process & Application by: Anita Kumari

    Carbon NanoTube(CNT) Process & Application by: Anita Kumari

    Carbon NanoTube(CNT) Process & Application OUTLINE Introduction History Structure Synthesis Properties Application Challenges References What is CNT? CNT is a tubular form of carbon with diameter as small as 1nm. Length: few nm to microns. CNT is configurationally equivalent to...
  • THe AP Language Exam

    THe AP Language Exam

    The AP Language Exam Multiple Choice AP Language Exam In the AP Language Exam's multiple choice section you will encounter 55 questions of varying difficulty. There are two key components that will help you be successful in making the correct...
  • What Well Cover Today  2016 Annual Open Enrollment

    What Well Cover Today 2016 Annual Open Enrollment

    Welcome to Cablevision's Annual Open Enrollment for your 2016 [two thousand sixteen] Health and Welfare Benefits!. This presentation is designed to help you make the most of your benefit elections for 2016 and includes an overview of our offerings, with...
  • YOUR LOGO Sell More with an Online Contact

    YOUR LOGO Sell More with an Online Contact

    2018 eCommerce sales accounted for $2.842 billion & is expected to top $3.453 billion in 2019(1) ... Order History for Customers & Administrator. Order Email Notifications to Multiple Recipients. Edit Order Details After Purchase. Track Payment & Shipping Status.
  • Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions - USGS Water ...

    Achievements, Challenges, and Future Directions - USGS Water ...

    It works well for freshwater conditions when the devices can be secured over the stream and looking straight down. But even minor amounts of salt or minerals imped penetration of the stream and greatly reduce the accuracy of the measurements....