Thursday March 17th - WordPress.com

Thursday March 17th - WordPress.com

Tuesday January17th John Keenan [email protected] National Curriculum Language Literature Spoken English Kolbs Cycle of Learning (1991)

Concrete experience Testing implications of concepts in new situations Observation and reflection Formation of concepts and

generalisations QIA 2006. All rights reserved 3 James Zull (2002) Learning Strategy Already know Get attention

Make relevant Model Teams Goals Visuals Think and talk aloud Mnemonics Note taking Closure strategies Adapted from Fulk 2000 cited in Sousa, 2001: 34

New learning Existing concepts, knowledge and experience Students recall rate Listening Reading

Students are Increasingly active, and challenged. Experience is increasingly practical and multi-sensory Audio -Visual

Demonstration 5% 10 % Students Receive information 20 % 30 %

Discussion groups 50 % Practice by doing 75 % Teach others/immediate use of learning

90 % Students Apply their Learning The Ofsted survey on Creative Learning, published in January 2010, underlined the value, since proven elsewhere , of approaches that place creativity at the heart of the educative process. It stressed the benefits to pupils where Teachers were seen to promote creative learning most purposefully and effectively when encouraging pupils to question and challenge, make connections and see relationships,

speculate, keep options open while pursuing a line of enquiry, and reflect critically on ideas, actions and results and that there is not a conflict between... national standards in core subjects and creative approaches to learning. Allowing pupils to explore ideas through a creative process of trial, error and revision generally proved more (beneficial)... than firmly teacher-directed activities. This same report was keen to stress the value of over-coming teachers lack of confidence in working creatively through professional development, the more effective promotion of creative learning by senior management through local training and continued inschool support. One of the reports key findings was that we must support and sustain partnerships that have the expertise to develop creative learning. 6

7 8 Learners are, hustled from one skills-based task to another Marsh and Millard 2000: 61 9 Operating with an education marketplace English teachers have been

increasingly seen to deal in knowledge rather than meaning-making Dymoke referring to Gunther Kress 10 Creativity now is as important in education as literacy, and we should treat it with the same status Robinson 2006 quoted in Dymoke 2009, p.146

11 Originality Flexibility Make something new Problem solving Rearranging Seeing connections Thinking beyond Learning

12 Risk Ofsted taking risks, seizing the moment, running with the unexpected. Creative Means Learn to use apostrophe of possession

Learn the magic e rule Learn how to label what an adjective is The Interview The list of employer requirements provided willingness to learn. commitment, dependability/reliability, self-motivation,

teamwork, communication skills Harvey and Green (1994) 1 introducing (structuring) topics or activities clearly 2 explaining clearly with examples and illustrative materials 3 systematic and business-like organisation of lessons 4 variety of teaching materials and methods 5 use of questions, especially higher-order questions 6 use of praise and other reinforcement (verbal and

nonverbal) 7 encouraging learner participation 8 making use of learners' ideas, clarifying and developing them further 9 warmth, rapport and enthusiasm, mainly shown non-verbally Rosenshine (1971) 700 learners Top five professional characteristics: 1.Understanding and supportive

2.Committed, dedicated and hardworking 3.Fair with an inclusive and respectful approach 4.Warm 5.Humorous Top five teaching skills: 1. Clear instruction and presentation 2. Strong communication and active listening 3. Patience 4. Motivation and encouragement 5. Organisation and classroom management Top five favourite teacher qualities:

6.Sound subject knowledge 7.Understanding and gives good advice 8.Creative, interesting and imaginative 9.Warm and cheery 10.Clear instruction and presentation. Mentoring Towards Excellence (2001). https://targetjobs.co.uk/career-sectors/teac hing-and-education/330725-typical-teachin g-interview-questions

http://www.theguardian.com/teacher-netwo rk/teacher-blog/2014/jan/29/teacher-job-int erview-questions-top-ten http://newteachers.tes.co.uk/news/intervie w-advice/23242 The National Curriculum En2 Reading KS1 Reading strategies

Pupils should be taught to read with fluency, accuracy, understanding and enjoyment: Word recognition and graphic knowledge They should be taught phonemic awareness and phonic knowledge to decode and encode words Understanding text They should be taught to use grammatical understanding and their knowledge of the content and context of text KS2 Reading strategies To read with fluency, accuracy and understanding, pupils should be taught to use:

a) Phonemic awareness and phonic knowledge b) Word recognition and graphic knowledge c) Knowledge of grammatical structures d) Contextual understanding http://curriculum.qcda.gov.uk/key-stages-1-and-2/subjects/english/keystage1/en2-reading/index.aspx The National Curriculum

En3 Writing KS1 Spelling Pupils should be taught to: Use their knowledge of sound-symbol relationships and phonological patterns KS2 Pupils should be taught to: Sound out phonemes

http://www.webenglishteacher.com/othello.html http://www.enotes.com/topics/othello/teacher-resources https://sites.google.com/site/ohhelloothello/lesson-plans http://www.bookrags.com/lessonplan/othello/#gsc.tab=0 https://edsitement.neh.gov/ http://www.free-teaching-resources.co.uk/lesson-ideas/english/english-ks2/in dex.html https://www.shakespeare.org.uk/education/re sources

/ Compulsory national curriculum subjects at primary school are: English maths science design and technology history geography art and design music

physical education (PE), including swimming computing ancient and modern foreign languages (at key stage 2) Schools must provide religious education (RE) but parents can ask for their children to be taken out of the whole lesson or part of it. Schools often also teach: personal, social and health education (PSHE) citizenship modern foreign languages (at key stage 1) Key stage 1

Key stage 1 tasks and tests cover: reading writing speaking and listening maths science The tasks and tests are taken when the school chooses. Your childs teacher will use the childs work (including spoken work and homework) to work out what level your child is at in each area. You can ask for the results but theyre only used to help the teacher assess your childs work.

Key stage 2 Key stage 2 tests cover: English reading English grammar, punctuation and spelling maths (including mental arithmetic) The tests are taken in mid-May and last under 5 hours 30 minutes in total. https:// www.gov.uk/government/publications/nationa l-curriculum-in-england-english-programmes-o f-study/national-curriculum-in-england-english

-programmes-of-study Key stage 3 Compulsory national curriculum subjects are: English maths science history geography modern foreign languages design and technology

art and design music physical education citizenship computing Schools must provide religious education (RE) and sex education from key stage 3 but parents can ask for their children to be taken out of the whole lesson or part of it. Key stage 4 During key stage 4 most pupils work towards national qualifications usually GCSEs.

The compulsory national curriculum subjects are the core and foundation subjects. Core subjects are: English maths science Foundation subjects are: computing physical education citizenship Schools must also offer at least one subject from each of these areas:

arts design and technology humanities modern foreign languages They must also provide religious education (RE) and sex education at key stage 4. English Baccalaureate (EBacc) English, maths, 2 sciences, a language, and history or geography.

A level specifications must include at least two examples of each of the genres of prose, poetry and drama across the course as a whole. 8. AS specifications must include at least one example of each of the genres of prose, poetry and drama across the course as a whole. 9. Specifications must contain clear principles for the review and updating of texts. 10. A level specifications must cover a minimum of eight texts. Students must experience a wide range of reading in poetry, prose and drama that must include all of the following: at least 3 texts published before 1900, including at least one play by Shakespeare at least one work first published or performed after 2000 11. AS specifications must cover a minimum of four texts that must include at least one text published before 1900.

12. A level specifications must also include a text which has not previously been named for study (an unseen text). 13. Students study may include texts in translation that have been influential and significant in the development of literature in English. 14. Specifications must ensure that students experience a wide range of literature of sufficient substance and quality to merit serious attention. 15. AS and A level specifications must require students to show knowledge and understanding of: ways in which writers shape meanings in texts ways in which individual texts are interpreted by different readers ways in which texts relate to one another and to the contexts in which they are written and read 16. A level specifications must also require students to show knowledge and understanding of:

ways in which texts are interpreted by different readers, including over time ways in which texts relate to one another and to literary traditions, movements and genres the significance of cultural and contextual influences on readers and writers 2. AS and A level specifications in English literature must encourage students to develop their interest in and enjoyment of literature and literary studies as they: read widely and independently both set texts and others that they have selected for themselves engage critically and creatively with a substantial body of texts and ways of responding to them develop and effectively apply their knowledge of literary analysis and evaluation

explore the contexts of the texts they are reading and others interpretations of them 3. In addition, A level specifications must encourage students to develop their interest in and enjoyment of literature and literary studies as they undertake independent and sustained studies to deepen their appreciation and understanding of English literature, including its changing traditions 2. AS and A level specifications in English literature must encourage students to develop their interest in and enjoyment of literature and literary studies as they: read widely and independently both set texts and others that they have selected for themselves

engage critically and creatively with a substantial body of texts and ways of responding to them develop and effectively apply their knowledge of literary analysis and evaluation explore the contexts of the texts they are reading and others interpretations of them 3. In addition, A level specifications must encourage students to develop their interest in and enjoyment of literature and literary studies as they undertake independent and sustained studies to deepen their appreciation and understanding of English literature, including its changing traditions. AS and A level specifications in English literature must

build on the knowledge, understanding and skills established at GCSE, introducing students to the discipline of advanced literary studies, and must require reading of the major literary genres of poetry, prose and drama. A level specifications must extend these studies in breadth and depth, further developing students ability to analyse, evaluate and make connections Knowledge and understanding 5. AS and A level specifications must require students to use their detailed knowledge and understanding of individual works of literature to explore

relationships between texts and to appreciate the significance of cultural and contextual influences on readers and writers. 6. AS and A level specifications must require students to show knowledge and understanding of a range of literary texts. Texts for study must be chosen so that they illuminate one another and enable connections. http://www.teachit.co.uk/ks5-lit Characteristics of outstanding provision in English

An original and distinct curriculum designed to meet pupils needs A strong shared vision for English Effective approaches to differentiation

Showing the relevance of English to pupils lives outside the classroom Ensuring consistent quality in the teaching of English Listening to what pupils say about English Outstanding English teams never stand still Where provision is outstanding, boys do as well as girls in English The curriculum gives a high profile to reading for pleasure in English Ofsted (2011) Excellence in English 38 http://

www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/2011/ dec/16/boy-friendly-teaching http:// www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol6/604-gurian.a spx a) Ofsted (2003) Boys achievement in secondary schools b) Ofsted (2003)Yes he can: schools where boys write well

c) Ofsted (2011) Excellence in English 41 Ofsted (2003) Boys achievement in secondary schools When boys enter secondary school they are already well behind girls in English, although they achieve marginally better than girls in mathematics. Except in a small number of schools, the gap does not close during the secondary years. Boys continue to achieve less well than girls in Key Stage 3 tests and General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examinations.

42 http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2014/aug/21/gc se-results-2014-biggest-gap-11-boys-and-girls-a-c-pass-rate http:// www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leade rship/nov04/vol62/num03/With-Boys-and-Girl s-in-Mind.aspx http://

www.journeytoexcellence.org.uk/resourcesan dcpd/research/summaries/rsgenderineducatio n.asp http://www.bu.edu/today/2011/debunking-m yth-that-girls-and-boys-learn-differently / TRUE FALSE As firstGirls are better than boys at speech acquisition 1973 Nelson 18 months girls knew 50 words boys 22.1why the physical development is the same but at 18 months they are beter social factors cause this stewart clark or clarke stewart said mothers spend more time with daughters, more eye contact, more directed speech and more socialk speech thankyou Coates said fathers use much less

social speech of thanyou and girsl copy their mothers Coates get theorist bopys 41% likelihood of greeting a stranger, girsl 18% as coates point out children overgeneralise so whatever is learnt young get applied elsewhere, ploiteness, confidence, domeinance Show them the work from leicester physical fundamental frwequency is lower and babies speak lower to them Boys adopt a lower Fo than girls when the physical properties are the same FROM BIRTH BABIES CHANGE VOICE TO THE MOTHER THAN TO OTHER FEMALESShow them the work from leicester physical fundamental frwequency is lower and babies speak lower to them Boys adopt a lower Fo than girls when the physical properties are the same FROM BIRTH BABIES CHANGE VOICE TO THE MOTHER THAN TO OTHER FEMALES CHILD-DIRECTED SPEECH OTHE GENDERS ONLY UK IS IY ENDINGS BIRDY Good comment by Spender that she gave a talk to men about this in 1980 saying in mixed company men talked more and interrupted more and some of the men got angry and talked vehemently at her and constantly interrupted her but whe could then label them, as men do women as emotional and subjective. She was in control of the facts and her emotions but to reduce emotional speech as wrong is a classic male control as if emotions are not part of life and speech Socially Smith and Connoly before 4 yrs odl girls more talkative

mixed company (1972) women talk less than men Swann (1989) boys dominate conversation in number of words and turns taken Teaching and Classroom Management Strategies to Motivate Boys Lessons were well planned and organised, often with clear achievable aims and short-term targets

Lessons included a variety of activities (practical work, IT, activity based learning). Positive use of competition. Lessons were made interesting and relevant by use of real situations Teachers set high expectations, taught pupils to think for themselves and work independently, placing a high emphasis on study skills Teachers directed work strongly, but without stifling creativity and imagination Questioning was quick-fire, lively and varied with the teacher ensuring that all had the opportunity to participate 46

http:// www.bing.com/videos/search?q=teaching+boy s+good+practice&qpvt=teaching+boys+good+p ractice&view=detail&mid=744D04F3EB172B99 E654744D04F3EB172B99E654&FORM=VRDGA R Boys achievement in secondary schools Boys in particular responded well to:

carefully structured work in lessons clear objectives real-life contexts well-focused short-term tasks quick feedback

fun and competition 48 Learning https:// youtu.be/C7_GYz6vAB0?list=PLvzOwE5lWqhQ kin4ZZQl_mjh_SplPZL07 Spoken English John Keenan

[email protected] http://www.voicecouncil.com/take-our-5-singi ng-technique-tests / http:// www.bbc.co.uk/sing/learning/breathing.shtml Literature Language

Spoken English Theory What is Spoken English? National Curriculum and Spoken English Theory John Dewey legitimacy of I Leo Vygotsky - inner speech ZPD Jurgen Habermas the public sphere Robin Alexander lack of talk which challenges pupils

to think for themselves www.robinalexander.org.uk/dialogos.htm 55 Wegerif and Mercer Classroom talk typified in 3 ways: Disputational talk characterised by disagreement and individualised decisionmaking; Cumulative talk, speakers build positively but uncritically on what the other has said. It is characterised by repetitions, confirmations and elaborations;

Exploratory talk, in which partners engage critically but constructively with each others ideas Wegerif, R. and Mercer, N. (1997) A Dialogical Framework for Investigating Talk. In Wegerif, R. and Scrimshaw, P. (Eds) Computers and Talk in the Primary Classroom, pp 49-65. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 56 Dialogic teaching and talk Traditional whole-class discussion: teacher in control (has the answers) student response lacks depth

Dialogic discussion is participatory The teacher: manages the interaction encourages children to voice their own evaluative judgements 57 Dialogic teaching 5 features Collective: teachers and children address learning tasks together, whether as a group or as a class, rather than in isolation; Reciprocal: teachers and children listen to each other, share ideas and consider

alternative viewpoints; Supportive: children articulate their ideas freely, without fear of embarrassment over wrong answers; and they help each other to reach common understandings; Cumulative: teachers and children build on their own and each others ideas and chain them into coherent lines of thinking and enquiry; Purposeful: teachers plan and facilitate dialogic teaching with particular educational goals in view. 58 For dialogic to occur, teachers must

establish the ground rules teach the explicit skills required 59 National Curriculum and Spoken English Ofqual Recommendations 2013 Forms of assessment

We have considered how the learning outcomes for English language can be assessed in a valid way. Our review of controlled assessment found a consensus among teachers and exam boards that some skills can only be assessed through non-exam assessment. These include speaking and listening skills as well as skills relating to the writing process planning, drafting and revising/editing. However, we also found that the time limits and restrictions of the current controlled assessment limit the scope for students to develop those re-drafting and evaluation skills. We also know that the large teacher-marked controlled assessment component in the current English/English language qualifications makes them particularly susceptible to other pressures such as those from accountability measures. This can distort the assessment so that it is no longer fair for all students. We want the design principles, as far as possible, to deliver fair assessments for all students. It is our view that, with one exception, the outcomes for English language can be fairly and validly assessed by written exam. We therefore propose that, with the exception of speaking and listening, all assessment for the reformed English language qualification should be by written exams alone and that the total assessment time should be no less than 3.5 hours. The draft content, on which the Department for Education is consulting, includes a requirement that students must be able to demonstrate presentation skills in a formal setting and listen

and respond appropriately to spoken language, including to questions and feedback. These important skills cannot be assessed by written exam. Alternative assessment arrangements must be used. We propose that exam boards should design the assessment in which spoken language skills are assessed and that the assessment should be administered and marked by students teachers. The outcome of this assessment should not contribute to the grade; it should be reported separately on the certificate. We have just finished a consultation on making the same change to speaking and listening within current English and English Language GCSEs and we will consider the issues arising from that consultation when coming to a final decision in relation to reformed GCSEs. We propose such separate reporting because we are not confident that a national standard can be assured for teacher-administered and marked assessments in speaking and listening, particularly when schools may be under significant pressure to secure good outcomes in the qualification. Such assessments do not encourage or recognise the development of these important skills. We have considered how greater assurance of the standard could be achieved. All speaking and listening assessments could be recorded, allowing exam board moderators to review a sample of assessments in each school. Moderators could then confirm or revise the teachers mark. Alternatively, the speaking and listening assessments could be conducted and marked

by a visiting external examiner appointed by the exam board. Both of these options would raise cost and manageability issues for schools. Neither of the options would provide assurance that all students had been prepared in a fair way to take the assessment, for example with regard to prior knowledge of the assessment tasks and preparation for them. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20141110161323/http:/www.ofqual.gov.uk/files/2013-06-11-gcse-reform-consultation-june-2013.pdf Speaking and listening- assessed. https:// www.gov.uk/government/publications/nation al-curriculum-in-england-framework-for-key-st ages-1-to-4/the-national-curriculum-in-englan d-framework-for-key-stages-1-to-4

Wider Aims Cultural development Spiritual development Moral development Social development http://www.teachitcitizenship.co.uk/curriculum2014 Wider Aims

Aims Creative Critical Solve problems Spoken language presenting information and ideas: selecting and organising information and ideas effectively and persuasively for prepared spoken presentations; planning effectively for different purposes and

audiences; making presentations and speeches responding to spoken language: listening to and responding appropriately to any questions and feedback spoken Standard English: expressing ideas using Standard English whenever and wherever appropriate. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/254497/GCSE_English_language.pdf National Curriculum use discussion in order to learn; they should be able to elaborate and explain clearly

their understanding and ideas are competent in the arts of speaking and listening, making formal presentations, demonstrating to others and participating in debate. Spoken language The national curriculum for English reflects the importance of spoken language in pupils development across the whole curriculum cognitively, socially and linguistically. Spoken language continues to underpin the development of pupils reading and writing during key stage 4 and teachers should therefore ensure pupils confidence and competence in this area continue to develop. Pupils should be taught to understand and use the conventions for discussion and debate, as well as continuing to develop their skills in working collaboratively with their peers to discuss reading, writing and speech across the

curriculum. GCSE specifications in English language should enable students to: read a wide range of texts, fluently and with good understanding read critically, and use knowledge gained from wide reading to inform and improve their own writing write effectively and coherently using Standard English appropriately use grammar correctly, punctuate and spell accurately acquire and apply a wide vocabulary, alongside a knowledge and understanding of grammatical terminology1, and linguistic conventions for reading, writing and spoken language. In addition, GCSE specifications in English language must enable students to: listen to and understand spoken language, and use spoken Standard English effectively.

Spoken language will be reported on as part of the qualification, but it will not form part of the final mark and grade. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/254497/GCSE_English_language.pdf NC 2014 Spoken language The national curriculum for English reflects the importance of spoken language in pupils development across the whole curriculum cognitively, socially and linguistically. Spoken language continues to underpin the development of pupils reading and writing during key stage 3 and teachers should therefore ensure pupils

confidence and competence in this area continue to develop. Pupils should be taught to understand and use the conventions for discussion and debate, as well as continuing to develop their skills in working collaboratively with their peers to discuss reading, writing and speech across the curriculum. 68 Summary of Spoken English Tasks

Listen to and understand spoken English Make presentations Respond to questions and feedback Use spoken Standard English Conventions of discussion and debate Discuss reading

Work collaboratively with others As a National Curriculum, the document has massive gaps. Speaking and Listening is barely mentioned and lacks breadth. The focus is on learning poems, performing plays, making formal presentations, discussions, debates and explaining ideas. However, a great chance to grab teachers imagination and raise standards has been missed by not including storytelling, let alone linking reading to writing and speaking non-fiction. Talking like a book helps children internalise vocabulary and sentence structure, developing an elegant turn of phrase. Oral learning of written texts stretches back as far as Aristotle!

http://www.talk4writing.co.uk/newcurriculumforenglish/ http://www.theguardian.com/education/2013/aug/29/gcse-en glish-speaking-listening-drop Ofsted OfSTED, in its report English 2000-2005: A review of inspection evidence, states that: Too little attention has been given to teaching the full National Curriculum programme of study for speaking and listening and the range of contexts provided for speaking

and listening remains too limited. Emphasis on developing effective direct teaching approaches has led, at best, to good whole class discussion but, in too many classes, discussion is dominated by the teacher and pupils have only limited opportunities for productive speaking and listening. 72 Ofsted also note: schools need to make sure that schemes of work give equal emphasis to the development of pupils speaking

and listening as to reading and writing. S&l is not given the same attention or curriculum time as reading and writing it is rare to find that pupils have targets for speaking and listening, although there are many for whom this is the main obstacle to achievement. class discussion is too often dominated by the teacher and pupils responses are short and limited. 73

Stages children should be at presentation group Read the booklet. Digest the information. Present for 15 minutes in an interesting manner using Standard English. Socratic Discussion Read the given articles Create the materials for a discussion on the benefits and weaknesses of the Spoken English approach

Persuasive Speech Read the documents on persuasive register Present a speech of no more than 10 minutes on why Spoken English should or should not be examined. Answer questions on the subject References

Alexander R J (2006), Towards Dialogic Teaching, 3rd Edition, York: Dialogos Mercer, N (1995), The guided construction of knowledge. Clevedon. Mercer, N (2000) Words and minds, London: Routledge. 77 As a National Curriculum, the document has massive gaps. Speaking and

Listening is barely mentioned and lacks breadth. The focus is on learning poems, performing plays, making formal presentations, discussions, debates and explaining ideas. However, a great chance to grab teachers imagination and raise standards has been missed by not including storytelling, let alone linking reading to writing and speaking non-fiction. Talking like a book helps children internalise vocabulary and sentence structure, developing an elegant turn of phrase. Oral learning of written texts stretches back as far as Aristotle! http://www.talk4writing.co.uk/newcurriculumforenglish/ http://www.theguardian.com/education/2013/aug/29/gcse-en

glish-speaking-listening-drop Ofsted OfSTED, in its report English 2000-2005: A review of inspection evidence, states that: Too little attention has been given to teaching the full National Curriculum programme of study for speaking and listening and the range of contexts provided for speaking and listening remains too limited. Emphasis on developing effective direct teaching approaches has led, at best, to good whole class discussion but, in too many classes, discussion is

dominated by the teacher and pupils have only limited opportunities for productive speaking and listening. 80 Ofsted also note: schools need to make sure that schemes of work give equal emphasis to the development of pupils speaking and listening as to reading and writing. S&l is not given the same attention or curriculum time as reading and writing

it is rare to find that pupils have targets for speaking and listening, although there are many for whom this is the main obstacle to achievement. class discussion is too often dominated by the teacher and pupils responses are short and limited. 81 Stages children should be at presentation group Read the booklet. Digest the information.

Present for 15 minutes in an interesting manner using Standard English. Socratic Discussion Read the given articles Create the materials for a discussion on the benefits and weaknesses of the Spoken English approach Persuasive Speech Read the documents on persuasive register

Present a speech of no more than 10 minutes on why Spoken English should or should not be examined. Answer questions on the subject References Alexander R J (2006), Towards Dialogic Teaching, 3rd Edition,

York: Dialogos Mercer, N (1995), The guided construction of knowledge. Clevedon. Mercer, N (2000) Words and minds, London: Routledge. 85 Shakespeare and Voice suprasegmentals

. stress pitch tone Intonation

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