TIJ 2010 - Industrial Engineering 2011

TIJ 2010 - Industrial Engineering 2011

PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Fundamentals of Turning Herwan Yusmira Industrial Engineering PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Classification of Lathe

(a) According to configuration Horizontal - Most common for ergonomic conveniences Vertical - Occupies less floor space, only some large lathes are of this type. (b) According to purpose of use General purpose - Very versatile where almost all possible types of operations are carried out on wide ranges of size, shape and materials of jobs; example : centre lathes Single purpose - Only one (occasionally two) type of operation is done on limited ranges of size and material of jobs; example facing lathe, roll turning lathe etc.

Special purpose - Where a definite number and type of operations are done repeatedly over long time on a specific type of blank; example: gear blank machining lathe etc. Examples of Turning processes. PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Classification of Lathe (c) According to size or capacity

Small (low duty) - In such light duty lathes (up to 1.1 kW), only small and medium size jobs of generally soft and easily machinable materials are machined Medium (medium duty) - These lathes of power nearly up to 11 kW are most versatile and commonly used Large (heavy duty) Mini or micro lathe - These are tiny table-top lathes used for extremely small size jobs and precision work; example: Swiss type automatic lathe (d) According to degree of automation Non-automatic - Almost all the handling operations are done manually; example: centre lathes

Semi-automatic - Nearly half of the handling operations, irrespective of the processing operations, are done automatically and rest manually; example: capstan lathe, turret lathe, copying lathe relieving lathe, etc. Automatic - Almost all the handling operations (and obviously all the processing operations) are done automatically; example single spindle automat (automatic lathe), swiss type automatic lathe, etc. PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY

Classification of Lathe (e) According to type of automation Fixed automation - Conventional; example single spindle automat, Swiss type automatic lathe, etc. Flexible automation - Modern; example CNC lathe, turning centre, etc. (f) According to configuration of the jobs being handled Bar type - Slender rod like jobs being held in collets Chucking type - Disc type jobs being held in chucks

Housing type - Odd shape jobs, being held in face plate PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Classification of Lathe (g) According to precision Ordinary Precision (lathes) - These sophisticated lathes meant for high accuracy and finish and are relatively more

expensive. (h) According to number of spindles Single spindle - Common Multispindle (2, 4, 6 or 8 spindles) - Such uncommon lathes are suitably used for fast and mass production of small size and simple shaped jobs. PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Principle of Turning

Examples of Turning processes. PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Schematic Lathe Schematic diagram of a centre lathe. . PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY

Schematic Lathe Schematic diagram of a centre lathe. . PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Pictorial view Pictorial view of a capstan lathe .

PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Pictorial view of turret Lathe Pictorial view of a Turret lathe . PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Single spindle automatic lathe

The general purpose single spindle automatic lathes are widely used for quantity or mass production (by machining) of high quality fasteners; bolts, screws, studs etc., bushings, pins, shafts, rollers, handles and similar small metallic parts from long bars or tubes of regular section and also often from separate small blanks. PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Parts Mounting devices Chuck of the lathe .

PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Parts Mounting devices Mounting of odd shaped jobs on face plate in centre lathe. Universal plate (a) Part directly clamped on the face plate (b), or used fixture as in c. PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY

Parts Mounting devices Mounting of part between centers by using lathe dog. PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Parts Mounting devices PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY

Parts Mounting devices Slender part held with extra support by steady rest PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Cutting tools Mounting devices PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY

Various cutting operation in lathe turning Facing Grooving Forming External

Internal Some common machining operations done in center lathes Threading PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY Machining Operations Usually Done In Lathes The machining operations generally carried out in centre lathes are:

Facing Centering Rough and finish turning Chamfering, shouldering, grooving, recessing etc Axial drilling and reaming by holding the cutting tool in the tailstock barrel Taper turning by offsetting the tailstock swivelling the compound slide using form tool with taper over short length using taper turning attachment if available combining longitudinal feed and cross feed, if feasible. Boring (internal turning); straight and taper

Forming; external and internal Cutting helical threads; external and internal Parting off Knurling PRESIDENT UNIVERSITY EXERCISES 1. How much machining time will be required to reduce the diameter of a cast iron rod from 120 mm

to 116 mm over a length of 100 mm by turning using a carbide insert. 2. Determine the time that will be required to drill a blind hole of diameter 25 mm and depth 40 mm in a mild steel solid block by a HSS drill of having a cone tip of 2 mm. 21

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