SMART and Outcome focused planning Ground rules/introductions Respect one another Fire escape Confidentiality Be mindful of assumptions made in language used Switch mobile phones off / on silent Active participation

Naive questions welcome Introductions 2 Learning objectives To discuss and agree what makes a good CIN/CP plan To consider how Restorative Practice can improve our planning with families To outline the importance of co-production when working with families and agreeing plans. To consider what makes a SMART and Outcome focused plan and

practice drafting one. Current context In research we frequently observe social workers doing a visit because they are meant to do one within a certain timescale (the stat visit). Their computer is literally flashing at them, they do the visit, fill in the form and the computer stops flashing. But the visit itself is often characterised by a purposelessness that leaves worker and family confused about what is happening (Forrester Zombie Social Work 2016).

Current context To me this is symptomatic of a system which has developed an obsession with effective management, without sufficient attention to the wider values and aims of the service. It is like a zombie social work - moving and busy (very, very busy!) without any sense of being truly alive (Forrester 2016). Todays focus

Why and how we plan our work with families? 5-Question Framework for Analytical Thinking What is the assessment for? What is the story? What does the story mean? What needs to happen? How will we know we are making progress? Brown et al (2012)

Plans Group Exercise: In groups of three or four, discuss: Why are plans important? How do we ensure families engage with plans and find them meaningful? What does working in partnership mean to you? Why are plans important? To highlight the desired outcomes for the child

Help focus and target professional involvement with children and their families To agree a clear guideline alongside/with parents about their role in making positive changes for their child. To clearly define the agreed objectives alongside the parents and YP Provide a tool for reviewing the effectiveness of the interventions and changes prevent drift, prevent delay in escalation Help professionals understand their role within the Childs plan Enable transparent working with families To highlight to the family what will happen if the plan is not successful in achieving the aim.

Importance of effective planning Making plans to support individuals and families is a core part of social work activity. As stated in the statutory guidance for the Children Act 1989, Assessing the needs of children and deciding how best to meet those needs is a fundamental part of social work (p11). Research from 2012/2013 Ofsted inspections highlighted that Despite the overall and steady improvement in the quality of assessment, inspectors found that 21% of subsequent plans for support did not clearly demonstrate the help that children and their families would receive and how the best interests of the children would remain the greatest priority. (The quality of assessment of children in need of

help) What makes a good plan? The Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and Their Families now superseded by Working Together 2015, stated that plans should contain the following elements: The objectives of the plan. What services will be provided and by whom? The timing and nature of contact between professionals and families. The purpose of services and contact. The commitments to be met by the family.

The commitments to be met by professionals. Specification of those parts of the plans that can be amended or renegotiated and those that cannot. What needs to change and what goals need to be achieved? What is unacceptable care? What the contingency plan will be if the plan is not felt to be working and especially if this results in the risk of harm to the child increasing? What we need to consider when drafting plans? What is the aim of the plan?

Does parent understand? Is the parent and child (if old enough) agree with the plan? Did they play a role in drafting the plan? Does it deal with the families priorities if they want things to change? Who will explain the plan to child? (Muench et al 2016) What does the child want to achieve? Has plan created change, what does child say? Does the plan address the risks? Who owns the plan? The aim or goal of the plan In a CiN plan, the aim should summarise briefly why the child and family require support or other

services and what this is hoped to achieve. For example: This CiN plan is to provide support to Jazmine and to help her family meet her needs, whilst her mother addresses her drug abuse. In a Child Protection plan, the risks that have led to the plan being required should be clearly set out; the plan should also state whether the child has previously had a child protection plan or been subject to any care orders. For example: This CP plan is to help protect unborn baby Carter from his/her mothers use of crack cocaine and from severe domestic abuse by her boyfriend, Jack Price. Ms Carters two older children, Shane and Shannon Denton, now live with their maternal grandmother under residence orders, due to similar concerns.

How to work with Children in need Each child should have their own assessment and plan. SCRs have shown that Children have not been treated as individuals and their individual needs, nutrition and sleeping arrangements were not recorded by professionals (Brandon et al 2013). Co-Production Research is clear that services for families are most effective when they really work alongside and co-produce with children and families.

(Arney and Scott, 2010). There is a difference between co-production and participation: participation means being consulted and having the opportunity to give your perspective whilst co-production is different in that it means the service user and carer are equal partners and co-creators (SCIE 2012 p.19). Unfortunately in practice a number of parents and carers have reported feeling of humiliation and intimidation when asked about their attendance at their Child Protection Conference. (Buckley, Carr and Whelan 2011).

Co-Production The Health and Care Professions Councils Standards of Proficiency (2012a) include as part of Standard 14 the requirement that social workers must: Be able to prepare, implement, review, evaluate, revise and conclude plansin conjunction with service users and carers (Standard 14.3, p13). Childs plans should: 1. Involve Children and their parents in the development of their plans, and their review 2. Professionals should consider the plan from the perspective of the child, parents and wider family members.

3. As far as practicably possible, the core social work values of choice, independence and personal welfare should be promoted in a meaningful way What does co-production look like for Social Workers? Genuine co-production exists when there is a positive relationship between professionals and the service user and they have a joint approach and responsibility to plan and ensure that support is delivered by and with whole families (Shulman et al 2011) This means - Sitting with the family after you have completed your

assessment, and drawing up a plan together based on the needs that you both identify. Reviewing the plan alongside the family. How is the plan working for them? Can they identify positive change? Do all the professionals agree what positive change would look like? Do the family also agree? Why is meaningful participation so important Without listening to children and understanding how they experience the world how can we determine what will ensure their protection and enable them to grow into healthy adults? (Schofield and Thorburn 1996)

All decisions relating to a child should take their wishes and feelings into account considering their age and understanding (Munro review 2012) Participation can be seen as a protective factor for vulnerable children, leading to increased levels of confidence, self-esteem and self worth (Schofield 2005) and maltreated children who do not feel involved may be left with feelings of powerlessness (Bell 2002). Why is parents participation so important? Children Act 1989 working in partnership with parents is a key principal

Most children who we work with do not end up in care (19% of those on a CP plan end up in care) Even of those children who do go into care 50% return home Importance of avoiding othering, them and us approach or we are only here for the children (Featherstone et al 2015). Group exercise 2 Does co-production of plans happen for the families you and your team work with? If not why not? Are there good reasons why this is not possible?

What are the benefits to co-production? What are the barriers to co-production? How might we overcome these? Restorative Practice Restorative Practice Justice responsive repairing harm and relationships when something has gone wrong

Practice proactive how we do what we do, anything that builds connections, develops community, relationships and the above Key Themes Relationships Personal Responsibility Respect Communication Emotional well being Community Individual needs

The traditional approach Traditionally when something goes wrong, we ask: What happened? Who is to blame? What punishment or sanction is needed? The Restorative Approach In a restorative approach when something goes wrong, we ask: What happened? What harm has resulted?

What needs to happen to make things better? The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) The importance of language What do we say? Verbal/non-verbal How do we say it? Verbal/non-verbal

What are we trying to achieve? Does what we say or do help? Challenge Four ways To With

Not For Support Adapted from: Wachtel T & McCold P in Strang H & Braithwaite J (eds), (2001), Restorative Justice and Civil Society, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Group exercise How would it feel for service users to be worked with, to , for or not?

In your teams do you think you work more with, to, for or not? What impacts on how you work with families? Affective Statements When you... I feel What I need is

Non judgemental Separate the behaviour from the person Express feelings and the reason for them State request clearly Request not demand

Outcome Focused Planning Achieving Outcomes Achieving a goal/outcome is about getting from point A to B. From point A, you create an action plan that gets you to point B. Sounds fool proof, except the action plan isnt 100% valid. Thats because youre setting the plan from point A. You havent even been to point B, so how do you even know if itll get you to B? Outcome Think of something small that you would like to achieve. A goal.

Individually spend a couple of minutes imagining yourself in that place. What does it feel like, smell like, sound like and look like. Look all around it, really taking in every detail of it. Outputs/Steps/Actions With your outcome/goal in mind Spend a couple of minutes thinking about the steps you need to take to get you there. Notice any barriers and how they might be overcome. Now consider what the gaps are, what do you need to achieve this. What are the steps you need to take and what do you need to help you with this. What

priority/order do they need to be in? How will you know when you have got there? How would someone else know you had got there? Discuss as a group what you notice collectively. Feedback to the whole group one of these per table. Outcome Focused Planning 1. M and K to engage in domestic violence recovery programs, either separately or together. This is in order to prevent C ,N & B witnessing domestic violence and abuse and the emotional harm that this would cause to them. 2. M to continue to protect the children and ensure that K has no contact with

C & N. This should be reviewed for B at the next conference. This is to protect all three children from the emotional harm of witnessing K behaving aggressively toward himself or others. 3. M to make sure that none of the children see her intoxicated and aggressive. This is to reduce the risk of her being emotionally abusive toward the children and ensures their physical and emotional safety as her parenting capacity will not be compromised. The potential benefits of an outcomes-focussed approach

Group Exercise Spend 10 minutes in small groups thinking about the potential benefits of an outcomes-focussed approach. What are the benefits for: Children and young people Parents

Professionals Organisations Some benefits of an outcomesfocussed approach: The approach: Gives the child a voice in saying what is important to them in their lives Helps to clarify the responsibilities of those involved including parents, staff and the child Supports practitioners to be clear about the purpose of interventions, and specify how long interventions should take. This can prevent a dependency on support

Enables greater clarity about what will make a difference in the persons life Maximise a solution-focussed approach to practice which recognises strengths and resources (Wilkens 2012) Requires a shift in power relationships, maximising the involvement and participation of the person using support in shaping the nature of the support offered and their part in the plan Facilitates conversations about what is possible and supports creative thinking Encourages reflection and evaluation, creating a more

meaningful purpose for review activity SMART planning What is a SMART plan? The concept of SMART planning originated in the field of management studies but is now considered relevant to other fields as well (Doran, 1981). Doran noted that: Despite all the literature and seminars dealing with effective objective setting and writing, the fact is that most managers still dont know what objectives are and how they can be written (p35).

SMART Plans Specific - What is expected? Why? Who is involved? Where it should happen? What might be the requirements and constraints? Measurable - How much? How many? How will we know if it is achieved? Attainable Is this realistic? How can this be achieved? Relevant - Does this seem worthwhile? Is it the right time to do this? Will this achieve an improved outcome for the child?

Timely When does this need to be done by? Consider the childs timeframe and the level of risk associated. David Wilkins 2013 Importantly, Doran noted that not every objective in every plan can be made to comply with all five criteria but the aim should be for as many objectives as possible to comply with as many of the criteria as possible. Doran concluded that the more of the criteria an objective complies with, the SMARTer our planning will be.

Exercise For each of the following, are they better described as a goal or an objective? If an objective, would you consider it to be SMART or unSMART? 1. Mrs Bee needs help and support to live independently in the community. 2. Micah needs additional support at school especially in English and History. 3. Abu should attend all four of his scheduled medical appointments over the next 10 weeks. 4. Tamila should not be discharged from hospital until she is medically-fit to go home. 5. Josh needs to feel safe and secure at home. 6. Elena-Fatima needs to gain at least 500 grams in weight within six weeks

from todays date. Reviewing your plan Your familys plan should be an evolving process that develops with the ongoing assessment; an evolving process in which though and action are reciprocal. Thought Action Actions are guided by thought and the consequences of actions and noted,

considered and fed back in order to influence further action. Plans need to be reviewed in order to measure their effectiveness. How will you know if you are making progress? How will you gather the necessary information? What does this information tell you? Plans that have been developed with family's and professionals should be simple and understandable for them, and easily reviewed by everyone. Their perception of their progress might be different but open and honest working with families should result in plans that show the progress and areas for development. The notion of a fridge plan. A SMART plan should enable professionals and family's to quickly gather a clear

understanding of where progress has and hasnt been made. Where progress is limited, consider why. Was the plan achievable or does this need to be broken down into smaller steps? Is the plan achieving any improvement in the outcome for the child? Are there new aspects of the childs circumstances that need to be addressed? Contingency planning All plans need to outline the contingency plan what will happen if this plan doesnt achieve the aim? This has to be individualised to the child. A contingency plan cannot simply state The Local Authority will take the case to an Initial Child Protection conference.

Consider your contingency plan with the family who in their family can provide support if needed? Can they provide care? Do we need to complete assessments with these family members now, to enable the contingency plan to be truly effective? What would the child do if they needed help? Your contingency plan might change as your assessment and plan develops this would ideally be reviewed every time you review your plan. Gloucestershire Plans About my life 1)

2) 3) Parental capacity Childs developmental needs Family and environmental factors

What are we worried about? What do we need to see? What are we going to do? Why?

By who and when will it be achieved? Exercise Consider a family that you are working with In pairs can you write a plan for the child and family Remember:

Specific Measurable Attainable Relevant Timely Feedback and consider whether the plan is SMART

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