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The edTPA trademarks are owned by The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University. Use of the edTPA trademarks is permitted only pursuant to the terms of a written license agreement. Academic Language, edTPATM Melanie Hundley, Vanderbilt University The edTPA trademarks are owned by The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University. Use of the edTPA trademarks is permitted only pursuant to the terms of a written license agreement. Academic Language 101 3 Todays goals: Define academic language

Examine academic language in the edTPA Discuss ways to support the candidates Academic Language School is where you go to learn a secret language but they dont tell you that its there. You have to figure it out on your own. Its like an initiation to a secret club. Maya, 8th grade. 4

Student Voices Academic Language Language is the primary vehicle for learning, instruction, and overall intellectual development. It is not only a means for communicating information, it is also a vehicle for deepening their understanding of important ideas. Kersaint, Thomspon, & Petkova, 2009, p. 46.) 5 Research Voices Kersaint, G.,

Thompson, D. R., & Petkova, M. (2009). Teaching mathematics to English language learners. New York: Rutledge. Academic Language Definition the language of the discipline that students need the oral and written language used for academic purposes

6 to learn and use to participate and engage in meaningful ways in the content area the means by which students develop and express content understandings Challenges of Academic Language The more experience we get with our content area, the more expert we become; the harder it is to see academic language. 7 blind spot familiarity

Cathy Zozakiewicz 8 Academic Language Zwiers describes academic language as the set of words, grammar, and organizational strategies used to describe complex ideas, higher-order thinking processes, and abstract concepts (p. 20). 9 Research Voices Zwiers, J. (2008).

Building academic language: Essential practices for content classrooms. San Francisco, CA: JosseyBass. Definition Academic language is the oral and written language that students need in order to understand (read, listen, think) communicate (listen, speak, write, connect) perform (think, read, write, listen, speak, solve, create)

Academic Language is necessary to participate in the content think question talk learn Common Core State Standards Academic Language

Language of the discipline Argumentation in the discipline Emphasis on texts & writing across content areas Developmental vocabulary of discipline tools trajectory CCSS Writing Standar ds CCSS 3 Text Types

Academic Language What I realized as I worked with my content was that I really had to show my students how to organize the stuff they were learning. (Scott, 2011) Social Studies Language Arts Science 12 Teacher Candidate Voices Academic Language

I was wrong. I thought that yall were just over-emphasizing something that students really just knew if they just paid attention. So, I assigned a writing prompt and the students wrote almost nothing. It was like they didnt understand what I was asking them to do. (Ben, 2010) 13 Teacher Candidate Voices Writing Prompt Discuss Steve and Frankenstein.

Student Work They are books. Monster is about a boy. Frankenstein is about a monster. We read them in school. Academic Language I revised the prompt thinking that just doing that would solve the problems. I was careful about the verbs I chose to replace discuss. I wanted to be more specific about what they were actually going to do in the writing.(Ben, 2010)

16 Teacher Candidate Voices Writing Prompt Discuss Steve and Frankenstein. Compare and contrast Steve in Monster and the monster in Frankenstein. Academic Language The response was better. The students kind of knew

what to do but there was still something missing. So, this time I used several scaffolds to help the students. A Venn Diagram. Sentence frames. Sentence Combining. (Ben, 2010) 18 Venn Diagr am Sentences Teacher Candidate Voices Student Work Steve in Monster got no future in the world

he in. He broke the law got caught in a store spent jail and on trial. His future done gone away tho he ant convcicted. It dont matter that he might notta done it. He got nothin now jail done shaped him. He cant escape his maybe action. Like the monster in Frankenstein he got no choice in what people do. Both Steve and the momster shaped by they society. Revision Steve, the main character in Walter Dean Myers novel Monster, was not convicted of the crime he was accused of but he still has no future because of the appearance of being a convict. He is in a world that judges young men by the color of they skin. News stories about them. It will not matter to society that he was not convicted; he will always be a monster because of who he is. As a young, black man who has been in jail and on trial, he will be judged as monstrous because of how society will see him. He will

always have the stigma of both trial and jail and wont be able to escape that. Similarly, the monster in Frankenstein will always be judged by his outward appearance. He looks scary and people dont know what to expect from him. Both Steve and the monster are products of their society and are judged and condemned by their society. It doesnt matter that they may be innocent; they have the appearance of being monsters by societys standards. Neither one of them will be able to escape the views of society. Academic Language When we teach a subject, or any topic or text within that subject, we must teach the academic vocabulary for dealing with itnot just the words, but also the linguistic processes and patterns for delving deeply into and operating upon that content (Wilhelm, p. 44).

Observation Notes 21 Research Voices Wilhelm, J. D. (2007). Imagining a new kind of self: Academic language, identity, and content area learning. Voices from the Middle, 15: 1, 44-45. Ideas & Structures in Science Although hydrogen is explosive and oxygen supports combustion, a compound of them puts out fires.

Unless hydrogen and oxygen form a compound, they are explosive. If hydrogen and oxygen form a compound, they lose their original properties of being explosive and supporting combustion. Tyre, P. (2012). The writing revolution. The Atlantic 22 . SCALE 2012 23 Academic Language in edTPA

Academic language development is making the language of the school, content, and classroom explicit to expand students control over language and improve their language choices according to the purpose (FUNCTION) and audience for the message. SCALE 2012 24 Academic Language Function Language used for specific purposes Inform Identify information Report information Describe information

Solve problems Define problem Represent problem Determine solution Chart 25 Research Voices Clyne, S. (2006). Academic Language Functions. Reprinted with permission on http://www.colorincolor ado.org/searchresults/? cx=004997827699593 338140%3Afnpf5wd9n gs&cof=FORID%3A11 &ie=UTF-8&q=sarah+ clyne&siteurl=www.col orincolorado.org%2Fgu

ides%2F&ref=www.col orincolorado.org%2Fab out%2F&ss=2544j836 608j11&sa.x=0&sa.y= 0 Example A group of students measured the circumference of an exercise ball. Here are their measurements in 42 inches: 46 42, 46, 45, 47, 43, 46, 46 45 47 43

Find the median, mode, and mean and enter your 46 answers below. Show your work: 46 315 46 46 The median 45 is _____. The mode is _____. The mean is _____. 45 7 315 42, 43, 45, 46, 46, 46, 47 26 Example Tom forgot to put his measurement on the list. When the students added Toms measurement to the list the mean and median decreased, but the mode stayed the same. Which value is most

likely to be Toms measurement? Circle your choice: a. 43 b. 45 c. 46 d. 47 27 Academic Language Functions Explain why you chose this measurement. The answer cant be 47 or 46 because the mean and the median decreased, so Toms measurement had to be less than those. Also, it cant be 45, because the mean would have stayed the same. It had to be 43. 28

Academic Language Functions Language Functions content and focus of the learning task represented by action verb within the learning outcome (describing, comparing, summarizing, etc.) 29 Social Studies Math

Science Learning Segment A set of 35 lessons coherent set of lessons build on each other toward a central focus clearly defined beginning and end

30 Learning Task Includes: activities discussions other modes of participation that engage students to develop, practice, and apply skills and knowledge

Learning tasks for segment 31 related to a specific learning goal connected to language function for learning segment Language Demands Specific ways that academic language is used by students to participate in learning tasks

reading writing listening and/or speaking demonstrate/perform Specific ways that academic language is used by students to demonstrate their disciplinary understanding. 32 What do they know? What can they do? What can they use language to demonstrate? Language Demands

There are language demands that teachers need to consider as they plan to support student learning of content, which include: 33 Vocabulary Language Functions Syntax Discourse Central Focus A description of the important understandings and core concepts that you want students to develop within the learning segment. The

central focus should go beyond a list of facts and skills, align with content standards and learning objectives, and address the subjectspecific components in the learning segment. 34 Vocabulary includes words and phrases (and symbols) that are used within disciplines including: words and phrases with subject specific meanings that differ from meanings used in everyday life (e.g., table, ruler, force, balance); general academic vocabulary used across disciplines

(e.g., compare, analyze, evaluate); and subject-specific words defined for use in the discipline. Example Annotate In Englishyou add notes and/or comments to a text, usually explaining something or going deeper into the specific meaning, make connections, identify and/or explore key literary elements In Scienceadd brief notes to a diagram or graph 36

Syntax Set of conventions for organizing symbols, words and phrases together into structures (e.g., sentences, graphs, tables) Examples from mathematics: Cathy Zozakiewicz Cathy Zozakiewicz Syntax Grammar consists of set rules regarding language and sentence structure, such as no splitting infinitives and no hanging prepositions.

Syntax, in reference to sentences, is how a sentence is worded and structured and in ways that can create, extend, or change meaning. types of sentence (declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, imperative) and word order (passive vs. active voice), length of sentences (short vs. long). Discourse Discourse

Structures of written and oral language How members of the discipline talk, write, and participate in knowledge construction Discipline-specific Distinctive about features/way of structuring language (text structures) English Math Science

Social Studies Discourse Common Core Text Types Argument Expository Informational Narrative Writing requires something to say, the words to say it, and the structure with which to write it (McCracken & McCracken, 1986).

edTPA Planning Commentary (4a-d) Teacher candidates must identify a language function essential to the central focus. English Example Math Example Science Example Social Studies Example Identify a key learning task that provides students with opportunities to practice using the language function

edTPA Planning Commentary (4a-d) Additional language demands Given the language function & identified task, identify associated language demands Vocabulary Syntax Discourse Language Supports

Instructional supports that will help students UNDERSTAND and USE language function & identified language SCALE 2012 Learnin g Segme nt Vocabula ry Practic e Central Focus Langua ge

Functio n 43 Key Learnin g Task Syntax Scaffol ds and Suppor ts Discour se Pre-Service Teachers are asked to: Select one key language function essential for students to learn

within the central focus. Identify a key learning task from plans that provide students opportunities to practice using the language function. Language Demands (consider language function & task) describe the language demands (written or oral) students need to understand and/or use. Language Supports: Describe instructional supports that will help students understand and use language function & additional language demands. Assessments:

What formal and informal assessments will provide evidence of students understanding and fluency? SCALE 2012 Academic Language in edTPA Planning Task 1 Prompt 4 Rubric 4 Assessment Task 3

Prompt 3 Rubric 14 edTPA Variations in Academic Language Some content areas address academic language differently. Early Childhood: vocabulary (as developmentally appropriate sounds, words, sentences, etc.) World Language (does not address academic language) Math: added precise language (CCSS)

Special Education: Academic Language Communication Academic Language in Commentaries Task 1, Planning 4. Supporting English-Language Arts Development Through Language a. Language Demand: Language Function. Identify one language function essential for students within your central focus. Listed below are some sample language functions. You may choose one of these or another more appropriate one for your learning segment. Analyze Argue Describ e Evaluat e

SCALE 2012 47 Explain Interpre t Justify Synthes ize Candidate 1 The academic language for this learning segment is related to using and understanding informational texts. Students have read many forms of narrative texts before, but are uncomfortable with other kinds of texts. On the whole, students do not understand how text features are used, especially in informational texts, and this

affects their performance in content area classes. Many students are also unaware of less commonly used text features, like white space and pronunciations in parentheses. Therefore, this learning segment will focus on 48 defining and using these terms. Candidate 2 The language demand for this segment is the interpretation of poetry using textual evidence. Students will identify their interpretation of the theme of a poem, and then support their analysis using evidence from the text and knowledge of poetic devices. Students have prior knowledge in analysis and interpretation of texts, but we have not yet worked with poetry or poetic devices in class. During previous whole group discussion, students were

able to define and explain their knowledge of the terms annotate, interpret, and analyze. Some students can easily identify theme and can recognize the use of literary devices, but many students are still learning this skill. Though all of my students can use supporting details, some still struggle with using conventions and textual evidence correctly. 49 Academic Language in Commentaries b. Identify a key learning task from your plans that provides students with opportunities to practice using the language function identified above. In which lesson does the learning task occur? (Give lesson/day/number.) c. Additional Language Demands. Given the language function and task identified above,

describe the following associated language demands (written or oral) student need to know and/or use: Vocabulary Plus at least one of the following: SCALE 2012 50 Syntax Discourse Candidate 1

In this learning segment, students will be learning about different text features that are often used in informational texts. The academic language includes white space, pictures, bullets, headings, subheadings, captions, sidebars, maps, drawings, and graphs. Students will also need to learn vocabulary words such as reform and intuition, which are present in the news and magazine articles that they will be reading in this unit. Students will be exposed to the academic language in a practical and engaging manner, filled with multiple opportunities to apply the new academic language across various genres of informational texts. 51 Candidate 2 The key language demand in this particular learning segment is providing a written interpretation of a poems theme using textual evidence and knowledge of literary devices to support their analysis. This is a language demand that combines many complex

skills. Students will be scaffolded through graphic organizers, modeling, peer support, and teacher conferencing in order to internalize this demand. Ultimately, students will create an argumentative essay about a poem of their choice where they explain the theme and then use evidence to back up their claims. The demand is integral to the central focus of analyzing poems for theme and the use of literary devices. Students need to be able to support their opinions and interpretations with textual evidence. This demand is appropriate for the students language development because it builds on their knowledge of supporting claims using textual evidence (with other types of texts) and it helps to prepare them for future classes, standardized tests, and their future outside of school 52 Candidate 2 contd Students will also need to know the terms symbolism, metaphor, simile, imagery, blank verse, personification, and rhyme and rhythm

in order to be able to support their interpretations of a poems theme. This learning segment also requires that students be able to communicate their ideas to their peers and clearly explain their claims with supporting evidence. Students will also need to be able to select key evidence from the poems and must know how to write a reflective essay on poetry. 53 Academic Language in Commentaries d. Language Supports. Refer to your lesson plans and instructional materials as needed in your responses to the prompt. Describe the instructional supports (during and

prior to the learning task) that help students understand and successfully use the language function and additional language identified in prompts 4a-c. SCALE 2012 54 Candidate 1 In this learning segment, students will be supported in their use of informational text features in all of the lessons. At the beginning of each lesson, students will see the academic language in their Daily Do Nows. Students will see the new vocabulary words in a sentence and must come up with their own definitions. In all of the worksheets and graphic organizers that students will be using, key

terms will be bolded. There will also be numerous opportunities for students to discuss the terms in class. 55 Candidate 2 Throughout this learning segment, students will also be exposed to new vocabulary words in the poetry that we will read. In previous units, students have used multiple strategies, including context clues and knowledge of word parts to break down words to determine their meaning. Students each have a list of strategies to use when they encounter unknown words in their binders for the class. They will continue to use this list for support during this unit, as well as other supports under the academic language section. I have two ELL students who have fairly strong academic language skills, but sometimes struggle with making sense of new vocabulary

words. I plan on pairing them with other students in the class and providing guided notes to support their learning. 56 Candidate 2 contd I am using numerous instructional supports that will help students in meeting the language demand and learning about the various poetic terms and devices that they will need. I will use think-alouds and other forms of modeling when I introduce the interpretive essay. I wrote an example of an analysis essay based on a poem that we have previously covered in class, and I plan on going through the essay with students, and asking them to annotate my argument and the ways in which I am using textual evidence and the poetic devices. After modeling the think-aloud protocol, I will ask students to give their own examples from the poem and to brainstorm their own themes using textual evidence. Students will then

discuss their responses in small groups. 57 Candidate 2 contd I am also introducing a limited number of terms each day so that students have the opportunity to practice using academic language in pairs, table groups, and full-class discussionsI am also planning on using graphic organizers that have examples of terms, different ways in which they are used in various texts. Students will complete these organizers in small groups so that they have the opportunity to discuss the terms and language with each other. To support my ELL students and other students struggling with academic language, I will cover strategies multiple times. This will allow students multiple opportunities to practice using the language and to get feedback. I also plan on meeting with students individually to discuss their progress on the interpretive essay and to give feedback. The use of direct instruction, conferencing, graphic organizers, and peer support will all support students in using

the targeted language. 58 Supporting Students Resources 59 References/Tools As we thought about academic language for our students, we thought about ways in which our students were exposed to the specific academic language of our program and the schools in which they were placed. Here are some of the tools that were developed:

60 Context The Program Context The School Observation Notes Task Practice Student Notes for Academic Language References/Tools Examining content area learning for academic language often required a specific focus on content, textbooks, or instruction. These are some of the tools that were created to help students think deeply about the language they were observing or planning to teach.

Academic Language Purposes blank Academic Language Purposes Mandy example Analyzing Textbooks or Readings Language Task Blank Task Practice 61 References/Tools Planning for instruction is a hard concept for novice teachers to understand. Here are some of the tools created to help them think through planning and

academic language in their lessons. Bloom Expanded Chart Lesson Plan Example Writing Methods Lesson Plan Example Teaching Seminar Lesson Plan Template Student Example Academic Language Questions for Planning ELA Academic Language Questions for Planning Math 62

References/Tools Helping candidates think through the Bloom Expanded Chart Lesson Plan Example Writing Methods Lesson Plan Example Teaching Seminar Lesson Plan Template Academic Language Questions for Planning ELA Academic Language Questions for Planning Math

63 References/Tools We collected lists of terms, command terms, and other tools that might be useful to our students. These are a few of those. Burke Academic Language List Command Terms IB program Chart They Say I Say Templates

64 Readings Brown, D. W. (2009). In other words: Lessons on grammar, code-switching, and academic writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Burke, J. (2004). Learning the language of academic study. Voices from the Middle, 11:4, 37-42. Gebhard, M. & Willett, J. Social to academic. Journal of Staff Development, Winter, 2008, 29 (1), 41-45 . http://www.umass.edu/accela/pdfs/gebhard_Willett_JPD.pdf .

Graff, G., Birkenstein, C., & Durst R. (2012, 2nd edition). They Say I Say: Moves that matter in academic writing. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. Jennison, N. (2011). Integrating test prep into reading & writing workshops. New York: Scholastic. Kersaint, G., Thompson, D., & Petkova, M. (2009). The nature of mathematics language. In Teaching mathematics to English language learners. New York: Routledge. Pp. 46-52.) Knapp, P. & Watkins, M. (2005/2009). Genre, text, grammar: Technologies for 65 teaching and assessing writing. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales

Readings Wilhelm, J. D. (2007). Imagining a new kind of self: Academic language, identity, and content area learning. Voices from the Middle, 15: 1, 44-45. Zwiers, J. & Crawford, M. (2011). Academic conversations: Classroom talk that fosters critical thinking and content understandings. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Zwiers, J. & Crawford, M. (2011). Academic conversations: Classroom talk that fosters critical thinking and content understandings. Portland, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers. Zwiers,

J. (2004/2005). The third language of academic English. Educational Leadership, 62: 4, 60-63. Zwiers, J. (2008). Building academic language: Essential practices for content classrooms. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 66 Thank you! Questions? Contact: [email protected] 67 Resource Slides

68 English Analyze Argue Describe Evaluate Explain Interpret

Justify Synthesize SCALE 2012 Language Functions in edTPA Handbooks Social Studies

Analyze Compare/Contrast Construct Describe Evaluate Examine Identify Interpret Justify locate SCALE 2012 Language Functions in edTPA Handbooks

Math Compare/Contrast Conjecture Describe Explain Prove SCALE 2012 Language Functions in edTPA Handbooks

Science Analyze Explain Interpret Justify with Evidence SCALE 2012 Language Functions in edTPA Handbooks

Academic Language Tools Sentence Frames are tools that can help give students the words and the structures to use as they are initially developing fluency. Since the square root of __ is __, then __ squared must be ___. (Math) The __ is an important symbol for __ because __. (ELA) In the experiment, the __ acted on the __ and caused a __ . (Science) The

war was caused by __ , __ , and __ because __ .(Social Studies)

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