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THE PRESIDENCY Essential Question: What are the powers and role of the president and how have they changed over time? LEARNING OBJECTIVES I will We will CON 4.A explain how the president can implement a policy agenda

Identify the powers of the CON 4.C explain how presidents have interpreted and justified their use of formal and informal power Explain how the powers of the President President have grown over time

Describe the checks on the powers of the President CONSTITUTIONAL POWERS Need for a Strong Executive Difficulties under the Articles of Confederation Protects liberty, private property, and businesses Holds the legislature in check

FEDERALIST NO. 70 Author Alexander Hamilton Audience States considering the new Constitution About Role and power of the executive in government FEDERALIST NO. 70 Argument

Strong executive in the Constitution better than weak executive in the Articles of Confederation energy in the executive is the leading character in the definition of good government Protect from foreign attack, ensure enforcement of laws, protect property, and deliver justice

FEDERALIST NO. 70 And so. Used to justify the growth of executive power over the years CONSTITUTIONAL POWERS Article II Outlines several key presidential powers

Execute laws Veto legislation Command military Engage with foreign leaders With Senate approval Negotiate treaties Appoint ambassadors and federal judges

GROWTH OF PRESIDENTIAL POWER Inherent Powers Powers not described in the Constitution, but that have been claimed by presidents i.e. Thomas Jeffersons Louisiana Purchase Congress and courts may try to limit president or go along with him GROWTH OF PRESIDENTIAL POWER

Immediate Needs of the Nation Power often increases in times of national crisis (war or emergency) i.e. FDR enlarged the role of government in the economy during Great Depression

GROWTH OF PRESIDENTIAL POWER Executive Privilege The right of the president and other high-ranking executive officers to refuse to testify before Congress or a court Not in the Constitution but used since Washingtons presidency Supreme Court has usually upheld this as part of separation of powers

GROWTH OF PRESIDENTIAL POWER Mandate Authorization to act given to a representative Presidents claim that their ideas/policies represent a mandate from the people Presidents popularity puts pressure on Congress GROWTH OF PRESIDENTIAL POWER Checks and Balances

SCOTUS can rule presidents actions unconstitutional Congress approves budget and can override presidents veto Senate must approve appointees and treaties Congress can impeach CHECKPOINT Why did the Founders create a strong executive? What are some of the specific powers granted to

the President under Article II? What are informal sources of presidential power? Why do presidential powers often expand during war or other times of emergency? PRESIDENTIAL ROLES Head of State Serves as ceremonial figure representing the U.S. Chief Executive

Leads executive branch, implementing laws Appoints (with Senate confirmation) federal judges and heads of departments/agencies PRESIDENTIAL ROLES Commander in Chief Responsible for nations security In charge of the military

Chief Diplomat Meets with foreign leaders, appoints ambassadors, makes treaties (with Senate approval) PRESIDENTIAL ROLES Legislative Leader Delivers annual State of the Union message to Congress Proposes legislation Signs or vetoes laws Can call Congress into special

session PRESIDENTIAL ROLES Economic Planner Appoints economic advisors Meets with business leaders Prepares annual budget request Submits economic reports to Congress HEAD OF STATE Duties Include

Receiving ambassadors from other countries Visiting the scene of natural disasters Meeting public figures (U.S. Olympic athletes) Giving out awards to accomplished individuals CHIEF EXECUTIVE Appointment Power About 2,200 top-level federal

officials who run the executive branch Senate must confirm most appointments Presidents Cabinet 15 people who lead the cabinet departments of the executive branch i.e. Secretary of State, Attorney General CHIEF EXECUTIVE

Impoundment Refusal to spend funds Congress approved for a program Reprieve Presidential order that postpones legal punishment CHIEF EXECUTIVE Pardon Presidential order that releases a person from legal punishment

Amnesty Presidential order that pardons a group of people who have committed an offense against the government CHECKPOINT What are main roles that modern presidents fulfill? How does the President fulfill the role of Head of

State? How does the President fulfull the role of Chief Executive? COMMANDER IN CHIEF Civilian Person not in the military or law enforcement Many presidents have had prior

military experience COMMANDER IN CHIEF Power to Make War Only Congress has the power to declare war and fund the military Presidents have sent military forces into countries without formal declaration of war War Powers Act (1973) sought to limit president

COMMANDER IN CHIEF Military Operations and Strategy President receives regular reports from military and national security leaders Makes decisions defining U.S. military policy and strategy

National Security Protection of a nation its land and people from foreign threats COMMANDER IN CHIEF Military Tribunals A military court designed to try members of enemy forces during wartime Operate outside the scope of

conventional criminal/civil proceedings CHIEF DIPLOMAT Treaties Formal agreements between governments of two or more countries President has sole power to negotiate and sign treaties 2/3 of Senate must approve Congress can enact foreign

policy legislation, restrict/funds, and pass diplomatic resolutions CHIEF DIPLOMAT Executive Agreements Legally-binding pact between the president and the head of a foreign government Does not require Senate approval Can be undone by successor

CHIEF DIPLOMAT Recognition of Foreign Governments President determines whether U.S. will acknowledge legal existence of another government and have official dealings with them

CHECKPOINT Why do you think the Founders put the military in the hands of a civilian? How does the President fulfill the role of Commander in Chief? How is he limited in this role? How does the President fulfill the role of Chief

Diplomat? How is he limited in this role? INFLUENCING LEGISLATION Tools to Influence Congress Meet with Congressional leaders to share views Compromise with opposition Hand out political favors Presidents goals more likely to

be met when majority in Congress is from same party INFLUENCING LEGISLATION Bully Pulpit President appeals to constituents through the media Constituents in turn pressure members of Congress INFLUENCING LEGISLATION The Veto

Difficult for Congress to gather 2/3 votes in both chambers to overturn veto Threat of a veto can force Congress to stop a bill or change it ECONOMIC PLANNING Federal Reserve System Central banking system of the U.S. Independent agency that sets

interest rates and controls the money supply President appoints 7 members to direct the Fed (with Senate confirmation) ECONOMIC PLANNING Council of Economic Advisers Presidential advisers who study

the economy and advise president on domestic and international economic policies ECONOMIC PLANNING Budgeting President prepares an annual budget President determines which programs to fund or cut back Proposal submitted to the

House POLITICAL PARTY LEADER Supporting Members of Party Presidents endorse candidates, speak at political rallies, attend fund-raising events

Political Patronage Appointment to political office, usually as a reward for helping get a president elected CHECKPOINT How does the President influence the legislative process? How does the President fulfill the roles of Chief

Economic Planner? What is the presidents role as party leader? Should a President act in the best interest of all Americans or only them members of his/her party?

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