Title Slide - Center for Innovation in Social Work & Health
Public Health Social Work in Higher Education Creative and innovative ways to make lasting change Valerie Tobia, LICSW, MPH Learning Objectives At the end of this slide deck, students will be able to Define higher education and appreciate its diversity and challenges Articulate multiple roles for public health social workers including in Provision of mental and behavioral health services Broad public health outreach and awareness services Physical health care Peer Education and Training Program Assessment, Evaluation and Quality Improvement
Appreciate examples of change efforts on college campuses Brainstorm how to use public health social work models to improve health on college campuses and to expand opportunities for public health social workers within higher education Acronym Key Throughout this presentation you will see acronyms used to be concise. Here is your key: PHSW / PHSWer: Public Health Social Work/er CC: Counseling Center HS: Health Services AOD: Alcohol and Drugs Title IX: National Law concerning sexual and gender based misconduct including sexual assault, equity in sports etc. Higher Ed: Higher Education PS: Public Safety
FYS: First Year Seminar required class for first year students at Wheaton. HBCU: Historically Black College or University HIS: Hispanic Serving Institution Introduction to Higher Education Higher Education is defined as education beyond the secondary level, especially education provided by a college or university. In the U.S., higher education is considered an important arena of opportunity, challenge and growth, a place where students can overcome class barriers, access credentials needed for good jobs, and acquire a degree of social mobility. Roughly 70% of high school students continue on to higher education; today, approximately 35% of adults over age 25 hold bachelors degrees (BLS, 2016). Faculty and staff work in higher education because they love teaching, appreciate the opportunity to shape young minds, and enjoy working with emerging adults as they develop into themselves and enter the world.
Ongoing Challenges in Higher Education Higher educations many challenges: Student Challenges: Access remains uneven. Cost and lack of financial aid are major issues for most. Students emerge with high debt loads, and while on campus, many work long hours. Research indicates that students of color, LGBTQ+ students, students with greater accessibility needs, from lower socioeconomic classes, and first generation students all struggle within the college setting (fitting in, academic load, support at home & on campus, retention, persistence etc). Faculty Challenges: Due to time, type of work and other barriers, faculty and staff struggle to collaborate on many campuses, creating silos and disjointed education and care for students; adjunct and non tenure track faculty continue to fight for fare wages and recognition, particularly as the percentage of adjunct faculty increases across the nation and tenure opportunities diminish Institutional Challenges: While larger elite universities are thriving, smaller colleges are increasingly threatened by high costs and demographic pressures of underenrollment. Many smaller colleges are closing.
The proliferation of diploma mills and the shrinking of the college age population are thought to be contributing factors. Finally, there is tremendous pressure to develop endowments and alternative sources of support as Federal support has dried up in the past fifty years. The Need for Innovation: A Role for Public Health Social Work Need for Innovation: a hot term and topic of todays higher education climate! Higher education is consistently critiqued as being behind the times in terms of innovation and is urged on to do new types of teaching, support and student advising to retain and support students, faculty and staff. Public Health Social Work (PHSW) provides a HOLISTIC, upstream view of challenges, and allows for creative, innovative, and unique solutions for care in a multitude of contexts in higher education institutions. PHSW asks important questions: What is the Social Environment in a specific higher education setting? Whats going on for each student, faculty member of staff person (Biopsychosocial lens) What is the structure of the organization; in particular, what is the hierarchy? Every institution is
structured a little differently Can you see the through the forest to the trees: Who are the stakeholders? Who makes the decisions? How much influence do you have as PHSW? What evidence and organizations can you call on to support a role for public health informedsocial work in higher education? Many Different Higher Education Settings
Community / 2 year degree 4 Year Private 4 Year Public For Profit Not for Profit College University Professional / Tech Degree Religious
Secular Location / Region in the United States Country of the world Liberal Arts Specialized Mission Schools (HBCU, Single Sex, HSI, Art School etc.) Online vs. In Person
Differences in Environments of Higher Education These different environments create different challenges for the staff/faculty and student population and create unique opportunities for change and influence from a PHSW perspective: Consider how these two schools, a few miles apart, might have very different issues! Where Does a PHSWer Fit in Higher Ed? Any position Higher Ed is deeply in need of more PHSWers PHSWers bring perspectives and questions that others do not think about Focus on equity, prevention, & access to care not just checking off boxes A PHSWer can easily function and smoothly transition between multiple contexts (Academic Affairs, Student Affairs, from senior administration to entry level positions) to frame and solve large problems in higher education: For example, a PHSWer can:
Work at/direct a Counseling Center, and as part of that role, work with Critical Incident Team to create policy for a measles outbreak on campus Aid Public Safety in determining environmental risks that can be reduced Work with Health Services to build input an LGBTQ+ focused health initiative PHSW Can Influence Multiple Issues Look for areas to be consult as expert, to utilize problem-solving skills, and to promote a public health orientation of how to intervene upstream: In committees higher education loves its committees and there are roles for PHSWs on all of them: Risk and compliance Strategic planning (college wide, department or division wide) Orientation / Spring Weekend Planning (or any other student focused activities) Training (MH, Title IX, Inclusion and Diversity etc.) Accessibility Housing Accommodations
On Call and prevention of MH emergencies Response to public health, mental health and physical health crises Academic support teams (case management, navigation etc) Provision of Mental and Behavioral Health Services Where most social workers exist in higher education Brief History of Mental Health Services in Higher Education The first student health service is credited to Amherst College in 1861, (but) almost 50 years passed before Princeton University established the first mental health service in 1910. At that time, a psychiatrist was hired to help with student personality development. The first 50 years of college mental health were marked by national conferences. At the
American Student Health Association's annual meeting in 1920, "mental hygiene" was identified as critical to assist students to reach their highest potential. However, it took another 40 years before mental health and psychological counseling services became common on college and university campuses. The American College Health Association formed a Mental Health Section to serve mental health professionals in 1957, and most colleges and universities have now developed mental health and counseling programs commensurate with the size of their student bodies. (Kraft, 2011) College Mental Health Today Greater demand for services and insufficient funding and staff. This requires creativity in searching for solutions to address increased demand
Short Term Model is now the norm in college settings integrated care model / primary care for mental health Benefits: reach many people, refer out for specialized care (primary care for MH) Increasing need for emergency care: more students are ending up needing higher levels of care
Focused on Skills Development: DBT, CBT, Mindfulness, Stress management, etc. College aged students emerging adulthood is a crucial time in an individuals life. A time when many serious mental health challenges bubble up or begin presenting, and when individuals are learning how to adjust to adulthood and defining who they are. This time is a perfect opportunity for PHSW intervention prevention, psychosocial intervention and support, and population specific care Who Works in Counseling Centers Historically, college mental health was in the hands of psychologists, but this trend is changing in recent years Increasing roles for MSWs in college counseling observed. There are two known Public Health Social Work (MSW/MPH) practitioners in AUCCCD
both of which would fall under the other category, making it difficult to make any assertions about PHSW. Still, college counseling is expanding as a field beyond medical model and new opportunities are anticipated Areas That Counseling Center Directors Sometimes Oversee We can see here there is much area for influence and change from a Public Health Social Work professional When 17% of CC directors oversee Health Services, 22.7% AOD and Prevention, and 17.5% oversee health
promotion these are crucial areas of knowledge that a PHSWer can easily step into and lead. Yet, most people that are overseeing these areas have a traditional therapeutic orientation or work from an exclusive focus on clinical mental health. The need for public health approaches and PHSW is clear! Broad Public Health Outreach and Awareness Bringing Groups Out of the Silos: PREVENTION
PHSW can plan important role in general outreach, education and prevention on college campuses: Meet student/faculty/staff communities where they are at Look upstream for interventions before problems arise Collaborate with internal and external partners who do not normally connect; build coalitions Work with students to harness their ideas and interests to better reach students (Community based participatory efforts) Make mental health and wellness more visible on a college campus and destigmatize by having PHSWs attend events and host open houses; target groups and whole community for major wellness events; parter with areas of high traffic and popular offices (student affairs, womens centers) Prevention, Continued Prevention in higher education is an area where PHSW can lead:
Many areas that Higher Ed currently focuses prevention efforts on are: Alcohol and substance use disorder prevention Title IX and other sexual assault prevention Suicide prevention Roommate conflict and housing conflict resolution Student retention (reducing drop out, suspension, and supporting transfer students) Case management (provision of affirmative supports to vulnerable students to maximize chances of success) Physical Health Care Medical Facilities & Utilization ACHA Health services vary widely by
colleges but cover most basic and in some cases, extensive medical care for all students These services break down barriers to care as many times co-pays are waived, and student health insurance plans, although expensive, are more comprehensive than employer or family plans for students Other Areas of Colleges that Report to Health Services As demonstrated in prior slides, mental health, counseling and
medical care are often grouped together and overseen by the same department / director Providing Medically Accurate Care: Roles for PHSWers Medical care for the emerging adult is nuanced and individual, requiring human development knowledge, a vast ability to adjust and address complex and compounding medical concerns, as well as creativity in advertising, provision of care and innovation. Because PHSW looks at the world, and populations from a multifaceted view, public health social workers have the capacity to provide care management for students with complex needs: International students
LBGTQ+ gender fluid students Students with major medical or mental illnesses Students of color
Students who may never have health care Following students who receive outside contracted services Peer Education and Training Training and Peer Education As society and campuses become more complex, students present with new challenges; PHSWers have the opportunity to guide and train college faculty, staff and students in crucial topics that can make a lasting difference in student and other stakeholders lives Areas of training that are needed and highly utilized on campuses: Mental Health First Aid and Positive Mental Health
Opioid Epidemic Response / Narcan Prevention e.g. Gatekeeper Training for Suicide, Depression Screening, Assault Prevention Engaging everyone! Students (particularly leaders) / Faculty / Staff / On Call / Public Safety Any captive audience focus on those who will come to you first, and then others will join as the good news of skills and training travels Data: Proving Your Worth Assessment Beyond just who shows up, higher education needs to assess: what type of service is provided, what people learn, what the goals of the programs are, and
utilization of assessment outcomes to guide changes moving forward Focus on Learning Goals what do you want your attendees to learn? For service fields focus on quality of service as well as type Focus today is on measurable goals, outcomes and return on investment people want results. This is a VAST change from the old adage of going to college to learn and delve into theory and topics Assessment Good, quality assessment measures allows for improvement in all areas of outreach, education, medical care & therapy Recommendation: Feedback should be provided directly to teams working on any related outreach projects as well as to individual clinicians Dont have the skills? Partner with your school of social work, psychology department or local department of public health to measure outcomes!
Assessment Another Role for PHSW PHSWers are poised to thrive in this area due to their knowledge of prevention and intervention, and familiarity with data collection and analysis. PHSWs have the keen ability to tell the story and make data talk! PHSWers ask difficult questions. Many times in higher education, departments only ask those who interact with them what they think this leaves out crucial feedback on why other students may not access a particular service. PHSWs are trained to think about a whole population, enabling to provide a more complete assessment of what works. Innovation depends upon these two abilities. Being willing to try, ask, fail, adjust are all part of the quality improvement systems in which PHSWs are trained. Examples of Change
Adjustments and Changes in Two Years Implementation of change can be powerful and wide reaching. These are a small selection of lasting changes made within the span of two academic years at Wheaton College, with a Public Health Social Worker in the position of Director of Counseling and Health Services Implemented first ever campus wide survey to assess counseling, health services and outreach and education to address why students do, and do not come to services Large outreach wellness fair each semester
23% increase in utilization of CC in 1 year Smaller intermittent stress relief activities and passive education (postering, table tents, e-mails from Director etc) New staffing structure and hired 1 new FT clinician
Trainings: First ever collaboration with PS / Faculty (FYS) / Offered faculty workshops Began twice yearly retreats and thank you activities for staff to recognize hard work On Call Staff training / Resident Asst Training / Peer Mentor and Preceptor Trainings
Short term saw 18% of student pop / 91% satisfaction rate compared to low 80s before PHSWer arrived Center has shredding box now / double locks for files / contractors do not have access to the center Outreach for first time collaborated with academic and student affairs groups / students / outside organizations
JED assessment campus collaboration from all areas, facilities to front line staff regarding mental health & suicide prevention Open House for CC/HS Activities and PHSW Examples Social Work Health Impact Model on
College Campuses Example #1: What Public Safety says in a Crisis Public Safety responds to all after hours emergencies, including mental health emergencies. Your recent survey of your college population on issues related to mental health crises, reveals some troubling responses. Four students report that they had either directly experienced or heard from other students that some Public Safety Officers do not respond well to students when they are having mental health emergencies and may need to go to a hospital ER. Examples include: Do you really think going to the ER will solve this? and Ending up in the hospital will ruin your life. You have this data. What do you do with it? How can you use PHSW approaches to investigate? How might you train PSOs to be more responsive? Think of this from multiple perspective: HR, employee rights, student concerns
etc. Example #2 Your College Counseling Center feels silod and cut off from the larger life of the college. You are aware that there is a long history and that there are many views and misperceptions, such as students should only go for emergencies / not culturally competent / only white people go there/ its mostly for undergrads, not graduate students, etc.). You want to change both the perceptions and the reality of the Center. How can you use a PHSW framework to do so? Whats your first task if you work in, or are the new Director of, the College Counseling Center? What about if you work elsewhere in the college (Athletics / Health Services / Housing / Faculty etc.)? How can you engage?
Example #3 Student Affairs and Faculty do not often work together although their link would appear to be a natural one. Counseling and Health Services have identified have a stronger connection to faculty as an important approach for helping students in trouble or who need extra support. After all, faculty are often the first people who know when students are struggling What are some PHSW approaches to this issue? Think both large and small scale Who are the stakeholders that you need to consider? If appropriate, how do you gain access to faculty? What approaches would you use? Example #4 Student groups on your campus are very active! They sometimes tackle health topics such as depression and STIs, but not in a comprehensive, accurate or
appropriate manner. What can you do in your role as a PHSW to assist student groups How might you connect with Student Affairs, Housing or other stakeholders to increase the quality and effectiveness of student-run health initiatives? Example #5 Imagine you are in charge of Counseling and Health Services at a college and your boss the Dean of Students or other senior administrator--does not fully understand college counseling or appreciate the mental health needs on campus. For instance, he often wats you to give him information about students who may have been seen at the CHS Center. He has also pushed you to provide more fun services such as hosting ballgames, as opposed to doing prevention or outreach, and when you resist, hes made it clear hed like to cut your budget. How can you use your PHSW skills and competencies to begin to address this challenge?
What would be the first things you could do? Summary There is a growing role for social work in higher education Public health social workers are especially well-trained and equipped to meet multiple needs of the college age population and college stakeholders Public health skills, such as wellness and prevention outreach, early detection and
intervention, community problem-solving, coalition-building, program evaluation and QI, student support and care management for high-need students, are enhancements to traditional clinical social work skills and should be broadly utilized The PHSW Model, with its focus on epidemiological approaches, clinical and community interventions, and systems and environmental change efforts, is a particularly relevant framework Resources Association of University and College Counseling Center Directors: https://www.aucccd.org/ The Association For University and College Counseling Center Outreach: http://auccco.com/
Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education (has regional chapters): https://www.naspa.org/ American College Health Association: https://www.acha.org/ American College Counseling Association: http://www.collegecounseling.org/ The JED Foundations: https://www.jedcampus.org/ Resources Fresh Check Day: http://freshcheckday.com/ Campus Health and Safety: http://www.campushealthandsafety.org/index.html College Student Educators International ACPA - http://www.myacpa.org/ American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org/advocacy/higher-education/mental-health/index.aspx Center for Collegiate Mental Health: https://ccmh.psu.edu/ Higher Education Mental Health Alliance: http://hemha.org/
Journal of American College Health: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vach20 The Chronicle of Higher Education: www.chronicle.com Journal of College Student Development: http://muse.jhu.edu/journal/238 Journal of College Student Psychotherapy: https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wcsp20/current Journal of College Counseling: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/21611882 Bibliography Fresh Check Day: http://freshcheckday.com/ Campus Health and Safety: http://www.campushealthandsafety.org/index.html College Student Educators International ACPA - http://www.myacpa.org/ American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org/advocacy/higher-education/mental-health/index.aspx Center for Collegiate Mental Health: https://ccmh.psu.edu/ Higher Education Mental Health Alliance: http://hemha.org/
Journal of American College Health: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/vach20 The Chronicle of Higher Education: www.chronicle.com Journal of College Student Development: http://muse.jhu.edu/journal/238 Journal of College Student Psychotherapy: https://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wcsp20/current Journal of College Counseling: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/21611882 Valerie Tobia, LICSW, MPH Valerie Tobia, LICSW, MPH has been the Director of Counseling and Health Services at Wheaton Collundergrad, ege since September 2016. Valerie holds a bachelors degree in Psychology, with minors in English with a focus on racial and ethnic studies, and women and gender studies. After working on research and comprehensive sexual health education and reproductive counseling following undergraduate school, Valerie completed the MSW/MPH program at Boston University where she majored in Clinical Social Work at BUSSW and Maternal and Child Health
at BUSPH. Valerie has since worked in numerous clinical settings, primarily focused on public health social work. Her experience includes, but is not limited to, working with trauma survivors, working in and managing an Integrated Behavioral Health Team in a Federally Qualified Health Center / Patient Centered Medical Home, and doing community based therapy with the goal of reducing hospitalizations for young children and teens. Valerie utilizes her public health and social work skills daily in managing staff, budgets, working cross departmentally, and creating innovative ways to address the needs of students, faculty and staff at Wheaton College. Acknowledgements The Advancing Leadership in Public Health Social Work Education project at Boston University School of Social Work (BUSSW-ALPS), was made possible by a cooperative agreement from the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services (HHS) under grant number G05HP31425. We wish to acknowledge our project officer, Miryam Gerdine, MPH. Thanks also to Sara S. Bachman, BUSSW Center for Innovation in Social Work and Health, and the Group for Public Health Social Work Initiatives The ALPS Team: Betty J. Ruth, Principal Investigator [email protected] Madi Wachman, Co-Principal Investigator [email protected] Alexis Marbach Co-Principal Investigator [email protected] Nandini Choudhury, Research Assistant [email protected] Jamie Wyatt Marshall, Principal Consultant [email protected]
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