Get to Know Nuclear Patch Workshop For Troop # Presented By: Presenter Name What is an Atom? The smallest piece of an element Made up of:

Protons (+) Neutrons ( ) Electrons (-) Number of protons determines element Mass of an Atom Masses Proton: 1 amu

Neutron: 1 amu Electron: .000549 amu What is an AMU??? 3.67 *10-27 pounds 0.00000000000000000000000000367 pounds So mass of atom is about # neutrons + # protons What is the mass of... Helium?

2 protons, 2 neutrons, 2 electrons Oxygen 8 protons, 8 neutrons, 8 electrons Fissile Uranium 92 protons, 143 neutrons, 92 electrons Alpha particle 2 protons, 2 neutrons

Radiation Radiation is: A process in which energetic particles or waves travel through space What do you know about radiation? What is it? (types) What does it do? (effects) Where does it come from? (sources)

Types of Radiation Ionizing radiation Produces ions in the material it strikes Ions can cause DNA damage Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays (high energy photons) Non-ionizing radiation

Cannot cause ions Low energy gamma rays Types of Radiation High energy photons are ionizing Low energy photons are non-ionizing Natural Where does radiation

come from? Soil, water and vegetation Cosmic, the sun Internal sources Potassium-40 (bananas) Carbon-14 (air) Lead-210 (radon) Tritium (water)

Man-made sources Medical sources x-rays, rad. therapy Nuclear Power Radiation Hazards Humans, Environment, Wildlife: Sickness!

Acute effects: sunburns most common Chronic effects: cancers Marie Curie Discovered the element Polonium Won Nobel Prize in Chemistry and in Physics Only 4 people have

earned 2 prizes Founded the Curie Institute of Oncology in Poland Ida Noddack Among the first physicists to propose nuclear fission

Discovered the element Rhenium with her husband Rosalyn Yalow Helped develop radioisotope tracing technique Can measure tiny quantities of biological substances in blood

Won a Nobel Prize from that research Off to Stations! Group: A Cloud Chamber B

Fission Game C Geiger Counters Wrap-Up We hope you enjoyed your day Surveys!

These are important to me, please fill one out and place on front or back table Troop Leaders come to the front to receive your troops patches Please clean up your area Extra Topics Fission vs. Fusion

Fission Breaking apart of Heavy Nuclei Makes 20% of our electricity Further discussed later today Example: n + U-235 Ba-139 + Kr-94 + 3n Fusion

Combination of Light Nuclei Powers the Sun Hard to get on Earth were working on it! IEC Fusion Tour later today! Example: H-3 + H-2 n + He-4 Tritium + Deuterium neutron + Helium

Fission vs. Fusion Click icon to add picture Radiation Shielding Investigate during counters activity later Today! Radioactive Decay What happens to radioactive material

Radioactive atoms have an associated probability that they will decay Overtime with a large sample of atoms, this probability averages into a half life Half-life: Amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive atoms to decay

Types of Effects of Radiation Acute responses which increase in severity with increased dose (sunburn) More readily apparent Chronic effects which have an increased probability of occurrence with increased dose, but whose severity is unchanged (skin cancer)

American Nuclear Society

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