Title

Title

Dont Stick Your Tongue Out at Me: Oral Motor Exercises in Paediatric Feeding (a Review of the Evidence) Presentation by: Amanda Spirit-Jones, Clare Thomson, Eleni Haramis, Kylie Ryan and Laura Mobbs Who are we? Name Amanda Spirit-Jones Emma Minchin Tsen-Aie Levsen Clare Thomson Eleni Haramis Kylie Ryan Laura Mobbs Kim Truong

Dayna Ingram Anne Hoffman Lisa Jacob Meghan Gold Setting Disability - NGO Disability Government Disability Government Disability Government Disability Government Disability Government Disability Government Early Intervention - NGO Early Intervention - NGO Disability Government Disability Government

Disability - NGO Role Leader and appraiser Leader and appraiser Leader and appraiser Appraiser Appraiser Appraiser Appraiser Appraiser Member Member Member Member Clinical Question & PICO

Updating the 2006 CAT: In children with a disability does oral sensorimotor therapy improve oral skills in feeding? Our search SearchTerms/Systems: (paed* OR ped* OR child*) AND (oromotor* OR "oral-motor"* OR "oral motor"* OR sensorimotor*) AND (feed* OR dysphag* OR eat* OR intake OR meal*) in Medline, EBSCO, ERIC, Cochrane, PsychInfo, Proquest, Pubmed, ScienceDirect (paed* OR infant* OR neonat* OR pedi*) AND (disabilit*) AND (oromotor* OR "oralmotor"* OR "oral motor"* OR "oral sensorimotor" OR sensorimotor*) AND (intervention* OR therap*) AND (oral* OR feed* OR intake* OR eat*) in Google Scholar ''child* OR paed* OR infant* OR neonat* in title abstract keywords and disabilit* and oromotor* OR "oral motor"* OR "oral sensorimotor" OR sensorimotor* and intervention* OR therap* and oral* OR feed* OR intake* OR eat* in Cochrane Reviews' Oral Motor Therapy, oral motor + Paediatric feeding,. ASHA: searched and reviewed the Pediatric Dysphagia Evidence Map (Treatment)- oral motor treatment in Speech Bite Criteria for including an article:

Experimental or review articles published from 2006 onwards. Children included in study 12months and older. Results Papers Design Level of Evidence Morgan et al (2012) Cochrane Review I CAP/CASP

Completed (Y/N) Y Sigan et al (2013) Pseduo RCT III-1 Y Christiannse et al (2011) Snider (2011) Historical Control Study

Systematic Review III-3 Y II-IV (range) Y Arvedson et al (2010) Systematic Review II-IV (range)

Y Clawson et al (2007) Case Series IV Y Articles CAPed Sigan et al (2013) Effects of Oral Motor Therapy in Children With Cerebral Palsy Pseudo-randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of oral motor therapy on functional feeding skills in children with

cerebral palsy. Results suggest that oral motor therapy has a beneficial effect on oral motor functions in children with CP. Methodological limitations, particularly insufficient description of the intervention techniques used, render replication in clinical practice unfeasible. Morgan et al (2012) Interventions for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Children with Neurological Impairment Cochrane review (included level II and III-1 evidence) 3 articles included. Objective was to examine the evidence of interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment. Currently insufficient high-quality evidence from RCT/quasi-RCT to provide conclusive results about the effectiveness of oralmotor therapy for children with neurological impairment.

Christiaanse et al (2011) Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation is No More Effective Than Usual Care for the Treatment of Primary Dysphagia in Children Retrospective non-randomised control trial. NMES was conducted at a medical centre for an average of 22 sessions over 10 weeks and with an oral motor exercise home program. Both treatment and control groups showed significant improvement on Functional Oral Intake Scale. Snider (2011) Feeding Interventions for Children with Cerebral Palsy: a Review Of The Evidence Systematic review (included Level II, III and IV evidence).

The results indicate that, in children with CP, evidence for sensorimotor approaches improving oral-motor skills and reducing aspiration is conflicting. Clawson et al (2007) Use of Behavioural Interventions and Parent Education to Address Feeding Difficulties in Young Children with Spastic Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy A quasi-experimental design study Investigated effectiveness of Beckmans oral motor exercises with behavioural interventions and parent education in 3 year day patient program to increase oral feeding. Overall, some improvement in growth reported, however, it is difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of oral motor

exercises in isolation as it was part of a program. Arvedson et al (2010) The Effects of Oral-Motor Exercises on Swallowing in Children: an Evidence-Based Systematic Review Evidence-based systematic review (included Level II, III and IV evidence). Sixteen studies (1960-2007) included Addressed impact of oral-motor exercises in children pertaining to four outcomes: swallowing physiology, pulmonary health, functional swallowing and drooling. Mixed results were noted and those which resulted in a positive change were not statistically significant or did not provide sufficient detail to analyse. Clinical Bottom Line There is minimal low level evidence that oral sensorimotor therapy significantly improves eating

skills/weight gain/growth/time taken to eat a meal/oral motor skills. Small changes were seen when oral motor therapy was used during functional mealtime activities and in conjunction with other evidence based therapies such as parent training and home programs. Our Reflection Some clinicians will continue to recommend OMEs in isolation despite the limited evidence We need to measure if our intervention works! Consider functional and realistic goals Use outcome measures: o Dysphagia Disorders Survey o Multidisciplinary Feeding Profile o Goal Attainment Scales

Application to Practice: E BP 3 Minimal low level evidence to support OMEs Current Best Evidence Should we practise eating to improve eating? Clinical Expertise We want to enjoy

family meals Client/Patient Values Further Research Neural Plasticity Motor Learning Participation Parents Perspectives Oral Motor Exercises Next year

Were open to new members and ideas (we dont bite!) Our group is very friendly and practical We often discuss clinical cases along the way. Were keen to incorporate the voices of clients and families help us put the pieces together!! We offer therapeutic snacks in our meetings 2015 meetings: 10 February 2015, 1:30-3:30pm, CPA Kingswood 21 April 2015, 1:30-3:30pm, Miller Community preschool. 30 June 2015 , 1:30-3:30pm, ADHC Campbelltown 18 August 2015, 1:30-3:30pm, ADHC Parramatta

Contact Amanda Spirit-Jones: [email protected] Thank you All our group members and appraisers NSW EBP Network Steering Committee Goodbye to Emma Minchin & Tsen Levsen Welcome to our new academic links Dr. Leigha Dark and Dr. Bernice Mathisen References Arvedson, J., Clark, H., Lazarus, C., Schooling, T., & Frymark, T. (2010). The effects of oral-motor exercises on swallowing in children: An evidence-based systematic review. Developmental

Medicine and Child Neurology,52(11), 1000-13. Christiaanse, M.E., Mabe, B., Russell, G., Simeone, T.L, Fortunato, J., & Rubin, B. (2011). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is no more effective than usual care for the treatment of primary dysphagia in children. Pediatric Pulmonology, 46(6), 559-65. Clawson, E.P., Kuchinski, K.S. & Bach, R. (2007). Use of behavioural interventions and parent education to address feeding difficulties in young children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy. NeuroRehabilitation, 22(5), 397-406. Morgan, A.T., Dodrill, P. & Ward, E.C. (2012). Interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 10. San, S.N., Uzunhan, T.A., Aydnl, N., Eraslan, E., Ekici, B., & alkan, M. (2013). Effects of oral motor therapy in children with cerebral palsy. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 16(3), 342346. Snider, L., Majnemer, A., & Darsaklis, V. (2011). Feeding interventions for children with cerebral palsy: A review of the evidence. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 31(1), 58-77.

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