TOPIC HEADING - Car-Safe

TOPIC HEADING - Car-Safe

Australian Vehicle Crime Conference Diverting Young Offenders Dr Monica Thielking Department of Psychological Sciences Swinburne University of Technology CRICOS 00111D TOID 3059 Background What to do? What works? O V E R V I

E W The Synergy Program Forthcoming research Motor vehicle theft and carjacking According to the ABS (2011), motor vehicle theft is defined as: The taking of another persons motor vehicle, without permission, with the intent of temporarily or permanently depriving the owner/possessor of the use of the motor vehicle There are a number of different types of MVT. One type of MVT that has received a good degree of investigation in the literature is carjacking Carjacking involves the taking of a motor vehicle through force or threat (Miethe & Sousa, 2010, p.241) Types of carjacking scenarios: targeting moving vehicles, targeting stationary vehicles, targeting vehicle owners not in the immediate vicinity of their vehicle and home invasions to abduct victims or secure keys by force

Motor vehicle theft and carjacking According to the ABS (2011), motor vehicle theft is defined as: The taking of another persons motor vehicle, without permission, with the intent of temporarily or permanently depriving the owner/possessor of the use of the motor vehicle There are a number of different types of MVT. One type of MVT that has received a good degree of investigation in the literature is carjacking Carjacking involves the taking of a motor vehicle through force or threat (Miethe & Sousa, 2010, p.241) Types of carjacking scenarios: targeting moving vehicles, targeting stationary vehicles, targeting vehicle owners not in the immediate vicinity of their vehicle and home invasions to abduct victims or secure keys by force Motor vehicle theft and carjacking According to the ABS (2011), motor vehicle theft is defined as: The taking of another persons motor vehicle, without permission, with the intent of temporarily or permanently depriving the owner/possessor of the use of the motor vehicle There are a number of different types of MVT. One type of MVT that has received a

good degree of investigation in the literature is carjacking Carjacking involves the taking of a motor vehicle through force or threat (Miethe & Sousa, 2010, p.241) Types of carjacking scenarios: targeting moving vehicles, targeting stationary vehicles, targeting vehicle owners not in the immediate vicinity of their vehicle and home invasions to abduct victims or secure keys by force Motor vehicle theft and carjacking According to the ABS (2011), motor vehicle theft is defined as: The taking of another persons motor vehicle, without permission, with the intent of temporarily or permanently depriving the owner/possessor of the use of the motor vehicle -> nobody gets hurt There are a number of different types of MVT. One type of MVT that has received a good degree of investigation in the literature is carjacking Carjacking involves the taking of a motor vehicle through force or threat (Miethe & Sousa, 2010, p.241) Types of carjacking scenarios: targeting moving vehicles, targeting stationary vehicles, targeting vehicle owners not in the immediate vicinity of their vehicle and home invasions to abduct victims or secure keys by force

Motor vehicle theft and carjacking According to the ABS (2011), motor vehicle theft is defined as: The taking of another persons motor vehicle, without permission, with the intent of temporarily or permanently depriving the owner/possessor of the use of the motor vehicle -> nobody gets hurt There are a number of different types of MVT. One type of MVT that has received a good degree of investigation in the literature is carjacking Carjacking involves the taking of a motor vehicle through force or threat (Miethe & Sousa, 2010, p.241) Types of carjacking scenarios: targeting moving vehicles, targeting stationary vehicles, targeting vehicle owners not in the immediate vicinity of their vehicle and home invasions to abduct victims or secure keys by force -> somebody gets hurt The victim was taken to Box Hill Hospital in a serious but stable condition, but later transferred to the Royal Melbourne Hospital in a critical condition The Herald Sun How do we oust the current state

Government before term If you don't jail them, they think it's a joke and keep offending. Compare Singapore to 2016 Victoria Nothing will change until a politician or magistrate or their loved ones are carjacked by these African immigrants This is what happens when you bring people in from countries/ cultures whose respect for law and order are completely different than those of developed countries. When it's all said

and done, multiculturalism is/will be the biggest downfall in human history What to do? What to do? Do we need to be scared of young people? Australian youth offenders proceeded against by police 1 July 2015 30 June 2016; 10-17 years After accounting for population growth, the number of youth offenders decreased slightly (by < 1%) (Since beginning of time series in 2008 < 25%). Youth offenders comprised 13% of the total offender population The predominant principal offence committed by youth offenders was theft, which comprised 35% of all youth offenders. Approximately half of those offenders were proceeded against for public transport fare evasion (although it should

be noted that fare evasion is not a police responsibility in all jurisdictions). The second most prevalent principal offence was acts intended to cause injury (15%), followed by illicit drug offences (11%). The highest youth offender rate for any single year of age was for the principal offence of theft for offenders aged 16 years. The most prevalent principal offence for those aged 10-17 years was Theft, while for offenders aged 18-19 years it was illicit drug offences. Source: ABS, 4519.0 - Recorded Crime - Offenders, 2015-16 Australian youth offender statistics since beginning of time series collection: 2008 - 2016 The number of youth offenders declined across most offence categories. The largest percentage decreases in the number of youth offenders were for: Homicide and related offences (down 69%) Property damage and environmental pollution (down 49%) Public order offences (down 49%) Two notable exceptions were:

Illicit drug offences (up 49%) Sexual assault and related offences (up 52% - mostly due to non-assaultive sexual offences) Source: ABS, 4519.0 - Recorded Crime - Offenders, 2015-16 Passenger light/commercial theft in Victoria Source: Victorian Crime Statistics Agency see: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-12-04/statistics-raise-questions-about-calls-to-deport-youth-offenders/8087410 Source NMVTRC: https://carsafe.com.au/assets/TheftWatchIssue60December.pdf Motor vehicle theft in Victoria: Youth There were 81 less car thefts committed by youth offenders (aged 10-18) in 2016 compared to 2015, but offences are up about 55% on 2013; 31% on 2012. Country of Birth AUSTRALIA

SUDAN NEW ZEALAND INDIA Total 2012 1446 12 2013 1348 25 2014 1604 49 2015

1930 65 2016 1822 129 117 0 1748 33 3 1473 154 0 1961

102 3 2364 115 16 2283 Source: Victorian Crime Statistics Agency see: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-12-04/statistics-raise-questions-about-calls-to-deport-youth-offenders/8087410 Motor vehicle theft in Victoria: Youth There were 81 less car thefts committed by youth offenders (aged 10-18) in 2016 compared to 2015, but offences are up about 55% on 2013; 31% on 2012. Country of Birth AUSTRALIA SUDAN NEW

ZEALAND INDIA Total 2012 1446 12 2013 1348 25 2014 1604 49 2015 1930 65

2016 1822 129 117 0 1748 33 3 1473 154 0 1961 102 3

2364 115 16 2283 Source: Victorian Crime Statistics Agency see: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-12-04/statistics-raise-questions-about-calls-to-deport-youth-offenders/8087410 Violent motor vehicle offences in Victoria There are no publicly available statistics on carjacking offences involving youth in Victoria, however we have separate youth data on home invasions, car theft and aggravated burglary and this is often combined by the media when reporting on incidences of carjacking offences. We also have data on place of birth of offender and this is also quoted, i.e.,: Proportionally, Sudanese-born youths are vastly over-represented in the statistics, responsible for 7.44 per cent of alleged home invasions, 5.65 per cent of car thefts and 13.9 per cent of aggravated robberies.

see: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-12-04/statistics-raise-questions-about-calls-to-deport-youth-offenders/8087410 What does all this mean? Across Australia Over time there are less young Australians committing crimes. Only 13% of all crimes committed are by young people. Theft is the most common crime committed by young people, and half of these thefts involve not buying a public transport ticket and 16 year olds do this the most. 18/19 year olds are mostly charged with illicit drug offences. In Victoria There has been a 31.4% increase in motor vehicle theft in Victoria Car theft committed by youth offenders dropped in the last year, but is higher than the previous three preceding years Majority of motor vehicle theft is committed by Australian born young people, however Sudanese born young people are over-represented in this group. There are no publicly available statistics on carjacking offences involving youth in Victoria V

I C T I M S ? Latent offending trajectories of a cohort of Victorian offenders born over a two year period between April 1996 and March 1998 Crime Statistics Agency: See https://www.crimestatistics.vic.gov.au/research-and-evaluation/publications/patterns-of-recordedoffending-behaviour-amongst-young Latent offending trajectories of a cohort of Victorian offenders born over a two year period between April 1996 and March 1998 Risk factors for inclusion in one of the three higher rate trajectory groups included: Being male Identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander Living in one of the most socio-economically disadvantaged areas at the

commencement of their offending record. Additional research is required to identify whether there are particular life events or characteristics that trigger escalation or desistance from offending across the groups identified and Data was not available to consider, for example, whether particular life events, educational pathways or parenting styles influenced the trajectories young offenders followed. 2016, P.11 Crime Statistics Agency: See https://www.crimestatistics.vic.gov.au/research-and-evaluation/publications/patterns-of-recordedoffending-behaviour-amongst-young SEPARATION FROM FAMILY DOMESTIC VIOLENCE like when I was one and and like my dad he half years old, I got taken would hit me as a child off my mum and my dad and hed bash my

and was put in foster mum. I used to get care. I went through four bashed stuff like that foster care homes DISADVANTAGE I remember I got kicked out of our house, we were homeless for ages. Yeah we were homeless for a long time, I think since I was six or seven years old. ACADEMIC FAILURE DIFFICULTY MANAGING ANGER I wasnt really good at reading Id just punch things a lot. I or writing so the teacher had anger issues. Id walk out of

wouldnt explain it to me the class. Id put dents in the properly and Id just get desks, cabinets and all that stuff annoyed and f***n just get angry and run out of the room and f****n just start running amok NEGATIVE PEER INFLUENCES SUBSTANCE USE ....cause its like people youve grown EDUCATIONAL Well my drug use, I started up with people youve known a long DISENGAGEMENT smoking bongs when I was time. It's like hard to stay away from I hardly went to school. nine years old and havent them if you are close with them. So, I hardly went. I used to stopped it's basically like being with my friends wag school.

has brang me back in constantly. Source: Abou-Sinna, R. (2016). Whats it like on the inside? The impact of the self-concept on the educational engagement and delinquency of young offenders in a custodial setting, Unpublished dissertation, Swinburne University of Technology D I V E R S I O N Principles of effective intervention 1.RISK

Matching the intensity of intervention to the risk level of the offender 2.NEED Targeting risk factors associated with re-offending 3.RESPONSIVITY Adapting the intervention to the individual learning styles and characteristics of the offender Source: Andrews, D.A. & Bonta, J. (2017). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, (6 h Ed) London, UK. Routledge Principles of effective intervention 1.RISK Matching the intensity of intervention to the risk level of the offender 2.NEED

peer associations antisocial attitudes self-management skills self-control Targeting risk factors associated with re-offending drug dependencies 3.RESPONSIVITY Adapting the intervention to the individual learning styles and characteristics of the offender Source: Andrews, D.A. & Bonta, J. (2017). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, (6 h Ed) London, UK. Routledge Principles of effective intervention

1.RISK Matching the intensity of intervention to the risk level of the offender 2.NEED peer associations antisocial attitudes self-management skills self-control Targeting risk factors associated with re-offending 3.RESPONSIVITY drug dependencies cognitive behavioural

social learning Adapting the intervention to the individual learning styles and characteristics of the offender Source: Andrews, D.A. & Bonta, J. (2017). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, (6 h Ed) London, UK. Routledge Synergy was established in 2014 by Mission Australia, in partnership with Suncorp and the National Motor Vehicle Theft Reduction Council Diversionary social enterprise for young people involved in motor vehicle offending Young people and workers share a strong interest in cars Pathway to sustainable and on-going meaningful employment Aim for a reduction in further motor vehicle offending High quality outputs customer focused The Synergy Automotive Repairs Program Referred through Mission Australia, Victoria Police, DOJ and DHHS Synergy Pre-training Program with Kangan Batman TAFE Certificate 2 Panel Beating

Graduation and placement in industry with a 4-year apprenticeship Placement support up to 2 years post graduation Ongoing support provided if placement breaks down Synergy evaluation: Staff perceptions of client needs and strengths Needs Complex or significant mental health issues. Dual diagnosis (mental health and drug and alcohol) issues. Numeracy and literacy problems. Disjointed service integration to manage needs. Lack of access to appropriate (male) role-models. An unhelpful and unproductive mindset resulting from intergenerational disadvantage, an unstable family background and inappropriate and/or harmful social connections. Strengths A strong personal interest and good knowledge about the machinations of cars and a

desire to work with cars. Motivation to gain the financial opportunities that being a qualified smash repairer will provide, including having the financial autonomy to have their own car, their own place to live and the resources to support social and personal relationships Synergy evaluation: Participant overview Age and Gender and Ethnicity 18 males, 1 female Ages 16-24 74% Australian born ( one Indigenous) 21% overseas born History of homelessness

before age 18 (N=8) Running away from home Rough sleeping on the streets, in parks Couch surfing Hotel/motel as nowhere else to sleep Crisis or temporary accommodation Boarding house Highest education

Year 7 (3) Year 9 (4) Year 10 (6) Year 11 (5) Mental health 11 reported highvery high levels of psychological distress(K10) Social contact with others involved in crime 6 reported being friends with others who commit motor vehicle offences History of child protection < 18 7 had been in out-of-home care

Past offending history resulting in a criminal conviction Convictions Reported Frequency Motor vehicle theft (including motorbikes) 11 Taking a part of the motor vehicle without permission of the owner 7 Breaking into a vehicle and taking money 4

Damage of vandalism to a motor vehicle 3 Speeding or hooning 8 Drink or drug driving 2 Other road traffic offences 2 Other offences not related to motor vehicles

5 Key Findings One of the keys to change in the Synergy Program was the genuine trusting reparative relationship that existed between young people and workers and the existence of solid hope that young people (along with the cars they were working with) could change and improve. Genuine relationships and hope for improvement and change Reparative (therapeutic) relationships Decades of research indicate that the provision of therapy is an interpersonal process in which a main curative component is the nature of the therapeutic relationship (2001, Lambert & Barley, p. ) characterized by empathy, warmth andcongruence. The role of creating and instilling and having hope

Research identifies hope as a key factor in the counselling change process (2007, Larsen, Edey, & Lemay, p.413). Intervention is not something that happens to someone but is something that happens between people What the young people said about Synergy I was a pretty bad kid before this. Yeah. You know now that if you put in good work, you're going to get rewarded a job. Job means money I guess that coming here is like working my and that's life. Before I came to this best and showing that I can work and when I get a job I can program, I thought f*** it, didn't have

the mentality to do anything have a good reference. Like they can call them up, and they'll say he's been working well. And my hope is to learn more experience and work hard so when I get the next job, I'll know what to do They teach us what they know about life. They want to pass all their skills onto us Synergy is about transformation Theres one kid out there now that you wouldve thought no hope in the world but now hes probably the best one around out of the lot of them. He really wants to make it and if you knew his background, you think wow,

weve done this, weve made this change. You feel good about yourself, you know. That first time I saw our first group, when they graduated, I sort of got goose bumps. Im getting a tear in my eye just talking about it. You know, its giving something back to the trade or the community or the...Ive never been down that path, but to do something good for someones life, you know you feel a bit special. I have seen a big difference in some of the kids. A big difference in their attitude, their timing they used to come in at 11 oclock and theyre starting to roll in on time, so theyre starting to get it into their heads yeah that its working for them and

theyre enjoying it. Synergy is about transformation Theres one kid out there now that you wouldve thought no hope in the world but now hes probably the best one around out of the lot of them. He really wants to make it and if you knew his background, you think wow, weve done this, weve made this change. You feel good about yourself, you know. That first time I saw our first group, when they graduated, I sort of got goose bumps. Im getting a tear in my eye just talking about it. You know, its giving something back to the trade or the community or the...Ive never been down that path,

but to do something good for someones life, you know you feel a bit special. I have seen a big difference in some of the kids. A big difference in their attitude, their timing they used to come in at 11 oclock and theyre starting to roll in on time, so theyre starting to get it into their heads yeah that its working for them and theyre enjoying it. I think thats an important part of what this program is weve got a really clear idea around an objective around having a really safe place for peopleto come to, where they feel like they want to be somewhere and feel like they can connect to and I think these guys create that that European warmth they were talking before about their mums spanakopita these guys share their food, they share their experiences.

Theyve got a really good grounding, a really good base in their own lives, which really helps young men and young women to feel very comfortable but also gives them something to aspire to. So theres that mentoring without really meaning to mentor. The other great aspect is on the floor its about work. But its not like working with a youth worker. Its a job Synergy Trainer I think thats an important part of what this program is weve got a really clear idea around an objective around having a really safe place for peopleto come to, where they feel like they want to be somewhere and feel like they can connect to and I think these guys create that that European warmth they were talking before about their mums spanakopita these guys share their food, they share their experiences. Theyve got a really good grounding, a really good base in their own lives, which really helps young men and young women to feel very comfortable but also gives them something to aspire to. So theres that mentoring without really meaning to mentor. The other great aspect is on the floor its about work. But its not like

working with a youth worker. Its a job Synergy Trainer I think thats an important part of what this program is weve got a really clear idea around an objective around having a really safe place for peopleto come to, where they feel like they want to be somewhere and feel like they can connect to and I think these guys create that that European warmth they were talking before about their mums spanakopita these guys share their food, they share their experiences. Theyve got a really good grounding, a really good base in their own lives, which really helps young men and young women to feel very comfortable but also gives them something to aspire to. So theres that mentoring without really meaning to mentor. The other great aspect is on the floor its about work. But its not like working with a youth worker. Its a job Synergy Trainer I think thats an important part of what this program is weve got a really clear idea around an objective around having a really safe place for peopleto come to, where they feel like they want to be somewhere and feel

like they can connect to and I think these guys create that that European warmth they were talking before about their mums spanakopita these guys share their food, they share their experiences. Theyve got a really good grounding, a really good base in their own lives, which really helps young men and young women to feel very comfortable but also gives them something to aspire to. So theres that mentoring without really meaning to mentor. The other great aspect is on the floor its about work. But its not like working with a youth worker. Its a job Synergy Trainer I think thats an important part of what this program is weve got a really clear idea around an objective around having a really safe place for peopleto come to, where they feel like they want to be somewhere and feel like they can connect to and I think these guys create that that European warmth they were talking before about their mums spanakopita these guys share their food, they share their experiences. Theyve got a really good grounding, a really good base in their own lives,

which really helps young men and young women to feel very comfortable but also gives them something to aspire to. So theres that mentoring without really meaning to mentor. The other great aspect is on the floor its about work. But its not like working with a youth worker. Its a job Synergy Trainer I think thats an important part of what this program is weve got a really clear idea around an objective around having a really safe place for peopleto come to, where they feel like they want to be somewhere and feel like they can connect to and I think these guys create that that European warmth they were talking before about their mums spanakopita these guys share their food, they share their experiences. Theyve got a really good grounding, a really good base in their own lives, which really helps young men and young women to feel very comfortable but also gives them something to aspire to. So theres that mentoring without really meaning to mentor. The other great aspect is on the floor its about work. But its not like working with a youth worker. Its a job Synergy Trainer

I think thats an important part of what this program is weve got a really clear idea around an objective around having a really safe place for peopleto come to, where they feel like they want to be somewhere and feel like they can connect to and I think these guys create that that European warmth they were talking before about their mums spanakopita these guys share their food, they share their experiences. Theyve got a really good grounding, a really good base in their own lives, which really helps young men and young women to feel very comfortable but also gives them something to aspire to. So theres that mentoring without really meaning to mentor. The other great aspect is on the floor its about work. But its not like working with a youth worker. Its a job Synergy Trainer Key Findings: Summary The program was valued by workers and young people alike. Young people valued:

The mentoring relationships with trainers The opportunity to participate in an adult work environment working with cars The sense of pride they feel when a car is handed back to the customer repaired and new Feeling trusted and treated with respect Having a training opportunity or pathway into future employment. There was hope for change: The majority of young people indicated that it was extremely unlikely that they would commit another motor vehicle offence in the future The majority of young people indicated that it was extremely unlikely that they would continue to socialise with people who commit motor vehicle offences Principles of effective intervention 1.RISK Matching the intensity of intervention to the risk level of the offender

2.NEED Targeting risk factors associated with re-offending 3.RESPONSIVITY Adapting the intervention to the individual learning styles and characteristics of the offender Source: Andrews, D.A. & Bonta, J. (2017). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, (6 h Ed) London, UK. Routledge Synergy is about transformation M O T I V

E S Motivations for violent motor vehicle theft A number of international studies have investigated the motives and reasons behind violent motor vehicle theft among young people: Young and Borzycki (2008) summarise the international literature on the motivations behind carjacking in both youth and adults: It is faster than conventional motor vehicle theft

The gain from carjacking ( i.e., a vehicle) is known in advance. The stolen vehicle is considered easier to resell because it comes with a key Motivated by emotional triggers toward the victim, ( i.e., revenge, jealousy) Used for joyriding purposes Used to achieve another goal (e.g. robbery) or to acquire a vehicle.

Motivated by feeling satisfaction in changing a power imbalance A result of inclusion and participation in street culture or subgroups Can be racially motivated Current study: Insights into Contemporary Young Offender Behaviour in Victoria This project is being developed in consultation with National Motor Vehicle Theft Reduction Council Research team:

Dr Monica Thielking: BA Youth Affairs, BA Hons (Psychology); DPsych (Counselling Psychology) Dr Danielle Williamson: Bcomm (Management) BA (Hons Psychology), DPsych (Clinical Psychology) Dr Rana Abou-Sinna: Bachelor of Psychological Science, BSc Hons (Psychology), DPsych (Clinical and Forensic Psychology) The project will explore: 1. Common themes in the self-reported life trajectories of young people who have been convicted of violent MVTs. 2. Common themes in their self-reported attitudes toward self and others (i.e., peers, community, and Australian society). 3. Reasons for the use of violence in their offending and their perceptions of and attitudes toward the victim in their most recent violent MVT. 4. Drivers and barriers to positive change and a better future. Current study: Insights into Contemporary Young Offender Behaviour in Victoria

Methodology five young people who are currently serving a sentence related to a violent motor vehicle theft in either the Parkville Youth Justice Precinct (PYJP) or Malmsbury Youth Justice Centre will be recruited to the study. Young people will be interviewed by researchers. Research interview uses a qualitative non-structured approach to develop an in-depth understanding of participants and how they interpret themselves, others and their world (Bryman, 1988) by asking participants to share their life stories. Participants will be asked about their most recent VMVT and reasons/motivations for the offence, their use of violence and their attitudes toward the victim/s. A series of vignettes involving violent and non-violent MVT will also be presented to young people as a less confronting way of eliciting responses from participants. Participants will also be asked about the factors that they believe contribute to positive change. Intended outcomes

1. Help to more fully understand the motivations and factors that contribute to violent motor vehicle theft. 2. Identify the needs of young people who engage in violent motor vehicle theft in order to inform interventions that aim to reduce re-offending. 3. Produce a set of recommendations for government and community agencies that seek to prevent youth motor vehicle crime and enhance community safety. Google definition of diversion Diversion Noun 1. The action of turning something aside from its course. "the diversion of resources from defence to civil research" synonyms: rerouting, redirection, turning aside, deflection, digression, deviation, divergence "the development requires the diversion of 19 rivers" 2.An activity that diverts the mind from tedious or serious concerns; a recreation or pastime. "our chief diversion was reading" synonyms:

entertainment, amusement, recreation, pastime, game, hobby; Diversion: An opportunity for young people to experience genuine, warm and empathic relationships with adults in a setting that leads them away from a criminal identity and that is adapted to fit in with their interests and needs and which instills a sense of hope for change and improvement, resulting in transformed individuals. I want to change now and become a better person because I want to become a better person for my family too..Its been a journey with some rough patches. Just all the stupid stuff Ive done. Ive learnt from it and Im ready to move on From Abou-Sinna (2016) - study participant.

References Abou-Sinna, R. (2016). Whats it like on the inside? The impact of the self-concept on the educational engagement and delinquency of young offenders in a custodial setting. (Unpublished Dissertation). Swinburne University of Technology, Australia Andrews, D.A. & Bonta, J. (2017). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, (6h Ed).. London, UK. Routledge. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Recorded Crime - Offenders, 2016-16. (No. 4519.0). Canberra, ACT: Author. Retrieved from http://www.abs.gov.au Crimes Statistics Agency (2017). Spotlight: Motor Vehicle Theft. State of Victoria, Australia. Retrieved from https://www.crimestatistics.vi c.gov.au/crime-statistics/historical-crime-data/year-ending-31-december-2014/spotlight-motor-vehicle-theft Lambert, M. J., & Barley, D. E. (2001). Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. Psychotherapy: Theory, research, practice, training, 38(4), 357. Larsen, D., Edey, W., & Lemay, L. (2007). Understanding the role of hope in counselling: Exploring the intentional uses of hope. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 20(4), 401-416. National Motor Vehicle Theft Reduction Council (NMVTRC, 2016). AUS Motor vehicle theft summary, 2014/15 to 2015/16. Retrieved from https://carsafe.com.au/dashboard#tab1

Thielking, M., Pfeifer, J.E., Nolan, K., & Boyce, C. (2016). Synergy Automotive Repairs Program: Process Evaluation Report. Melbourne, Victoria: Authors. Young, L. J., & Borzycki M. (2008). Carjacking in Australia: Recording Issues and Future Directions. Trends & Issues in Crime and Justice. No. 351. Australian Government. Contact: [email protected]

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