Trans and Nonbinary Youth Amney Harper, Ph.D. University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Discrimination Faced by Trans Youth in Schools 85% Harassed or Assaulted 25% Prevented from wearing clothes matching their gender identity 51% Unable to use name or pronouns 80% Unsafe or uncomfortable in bathrooms 59% Required to use a bathroom that didnt match their gender identity/expression 83% Feel unsafe at school 64% Avoided gym because of feeling uncomfortable/unsafe Policies that support trans youth make students less likely to miss school, but only 12% report they have affirmative policies
https://www.glsen.org/safeschools Feelings of Safety at School By Gender All Transgender 83% Trans Boys 84.6% Trans Girls 72.1% Trans Non-binary 80.3% All Genderqueer/ Other Nonbinary 54% Genderqueer 53.4% Other Nonbinary identities 59.2% Compared to 8% of all Cisgender (1.3% Boys, 10.4% Girls) GLSEN 2017 National School Climate Survey
Victimization and Discrimination at School In addition to peer to peer or teacher to student, institutional (e.g. school building or district) discrimination impacts students mental health Overall effects of victimization and discrimination include: More likely to miss school Lower GPA Less likely to pursue post-secondary education Higher levels of depression Lower self-esteem GLSEN, 2014
Trans and Nonbinary Student Rights FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION Expressing identity and opinions about LGBTQ issues GAY-STRAIGHT ALLIANCES Any extracurricular club SCHOOL DANCES Same sex partners and dress according to gender roles TRANSGENDER AND GENDER NONCONFORMING STUDENTS Transgender and gender nonconforming students often face discrimination over dress codes, access to restrooms and locker rooms, and their chosen names and pronouns. (State protection in Iowa) HARASSMENT Schools have to protect trans and nonbinary students PRIVACY Right to not be outed https://www.glsen.org/knowyourrights Assigned Sex Sexual Orientatio n Sexuality Gender Expressio n Gende r Identit y Gender Attributio
n Assigned Gender Sexuali ty Sexual Orientation Asexual Graysexual Demisexual Allosexual Aromantic Grayromant ic Alloromanti c Transgender Umbrella Trans Transgender Transsexual
AFAB AMAB MTF or M2F FTM or F2M Trans man or Trans woman Woman or Man Crossdresser Two Spirit Transmasculine or Transfeminine Non-binary Umbrella
Genderbender Androgyne Ambigender Genderfluid Omnigender Getting There Avoid mental gymnastics Sports metaphor Begin to see people as they wish to be seen instead of translating in your head Begin to reflect upon your own experiences of privilege in the world
Become aware of where barriers exist in your day to day life for transgender people PRONOUN S Nominative (Subject) Objective (Object) Posessive He He likes dancing. Everyone likes to dance with him. That is his backpack. He does it himself. She She likes dancing. Everyone likes to dance with her. That is her backpack. She does it herself. They
They like dancing. Everyone likes to dance with them. That is their backpack. They do it themself. Zie (ze) Zie likes dancing. Everyone likes to dance with zir. That is zir backpack. Zie does it zirself. Zie (ze) Ze likes dancing. Everyone likes to dance with hir. That is hir backpack. Zie does it hirself. Xe Xe likes dancing. Everyone likes to
dance with xem. That is xyr backpack Xe does it xirself. Spivak Ey likes dancing. Everyone likes to dance with em. That is eir backpack. Ey does it emself. Ne Ne likes dancing. Everyone likes to dance with nem. That is nir backpack. Ne does it nemself. Ve Ve likes dancing. Everyone likes to dance with ver. That is vis backpack. Ve does it verself.
Reflexive As counselors, some important things to remember When someone shares their pronouns and name with you, it is essential you use it and do so correctly because you may be the only supportive and validating person in their life. Practice if you are afraid of messing up. Apologize quickly and move on if you make a mistake If you are unfamiliar with something, do your research outside of the session. It is not your clients job to educate you. They likely have to do this too often in other spaces. Pronoun Practice Tools Pronouns/Minus 18 https://www.minus18.org.au/pronouns-app/
Practice with Pronouns https://www.minus18.org.au/pronouns-app/ Development Models for Development (Devor, 2004; Enkins 1997; Hogan, Finley, et. al., 1997; Lev 2004) Understanding of self, labels, and delays Coming out/Disclosing Identity Transition Environment (stressors and support) Community identity and/or integration Milestones Model (Rankin and Beemyn) From confusion, guilt, shame to self-acceptance
Not all milestones fit for all individuals (themes, identity specific milestones) Difference in milestones based on identities (e.g. many transsexual women had a period of identifying as crossdressers, many transsexual men first identified as lesbians or some milestones not experienced by youth who had more access to the internet and henceto information) Developmental tasks of identity formation often supersede other developmental tasks Development can be stalled or delayed when identity development pieces take the forefront Interventions/Resources for Trans Youth and Parents Working with Trans Youth GSA Education of school staff/personnel Inclusive images/examples Addressing bias incidents
Connect to community resources Role Models and Visible Allies Queer and Transgender Resilience Workbook (Singh) The Gender Quest Workbook (Testa, Coolheart, Peta) Working with Families Family Acceptance Project research PFLAG Outing Names/Pronouns Websites for Resources
GLSEN https://www.glsen.org/ (general resources) https://www.glsen.org/article/2017-national-school-climate-survey (2017 National School Climate Survey) Family Acceptance Project https://familyproject.sfsu.edu/ (general resources) https://familyproject.sfsu.edu/publications (publications) Campus Pride Index Taskforce https://www.campusprideindex.org/ Georgia Safe Schools Coalition http://www.georgiasafeschoolscoalition.org/resources/ (resources) Lambda Legal
https://www.lambdalegal.org/ GSA Network https://gsanetwork.org/ Standards, Competencies, and Guidelines WPATH Standards of Care 7th Edition http:// www.wpath.org/site_page.cfm?pk_association_webpage_menu=135 1&pk_association_webpage=3926 Formerly Harry Benjamin Standards of Care for HRT and Surgeries ACAs ALGBTIC Competencies for Counseling Transgender Clients http://www.algbtic.org/transgender.html APA Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Clients https:// www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/transgender.pdf
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