Journal Entry 12/15/15 What is Napoleons largest impact on Europe, why do you believe this to be true? Napoleon - Waterloo (The War of the 6th Coalition) British led by the Duke of Wellington masses troops near Waterloo (in Belgium) Napoleon attacks, but British defend their ground Prussian troops arrive at the last second to help British
Two days later, French troops start to collapse Napoleon surrenders British send him to St. Helena, an island in the South Atlantic and the middle of nowhere It is literally a rock, the worst possible place in the world He dies there in 1821 Daily Agenda/Goals 12/15/15 Agenda: Finish Napoleon (1 Slide) Haitian Revolution
Goals: Content: Understand how the Haitian Revolution is a precursor for LA revolutions Skills: Discussion Analysis Transatlantic Revolutions The fever of revolution spreads to the New World
Impact of the Enlightenment, American & French Revolutions Ideas of the Enlightenment come to Americas around the same time as Europe Rich peninsulares & creoles were famously slaves to European fashion, ideas, culture, etc. until well into the 20th century Intellectual atmosphere was one that wanted a move free society, looser caste system, end to slavery, etc., but never really had the stomach to do it (kinda like Enlightened tyranny) This was true: for economic (who would produce our resources?), social (we like having money)
political reasons (church and state tied in Spain so Enlightenment always goes through religion) American Revolution shows that it is possible for colonies to through off yoke of colonial power & have pop. sovereignty French Revolution perpetuates the idea that Europeans are ready for Enlightenment ideals (esp. end to slavery) Haitian Revolution part I What unique characteristics did the colony of St. Domingue have? Explain the socio-cultural and political situation prior
to the Revolution. Why did it succeed where others have failed? How did the revolutionaries in France react to the uprising in Haiti? What do Spain & Britain have to do with the Haitian Revolution? Who is Toussaint Louverture & why is he important? What was his (and the rest of Haitis) style of fighting? What type of governmental system did he establish? Haitian Revolution part II How did Louverture overreach and upset
Napoleon? How does this dovetail with the Napoleonic Wars in Europe? How did Napoleonic France treat slaves and other people of color? Who ruled Haiti after Louverture? How did he rule & what was his fate? Why did the Haitian Revolution succeed where other similar revolutions failed? What was Haitis international status as a result of the revolution? Journal Entry 12/16/15
Since today is the last day we are going to have a journal entry before break, I must ask the following question How did the bubonic plague lead to the papacy in Avignon? Just kidding What are you plans for break, why will your break be better than everyone else in this class? Agenda/Goals 12/16/15 Agenda:
Latin American Revolutions Goals: Content: Understand key components that led to revolutions in Latin America Discuss and understand the three major Latin American Revolutions Skills: Note taking Discussion Analysis
LA Background 1500-1700 Two major powers in LA Spanish and Portuguese (French in Hispaniola, but as you studied not forever) Spanish control most of Central America (Mexico) and a great deal of South America (Peru) Portuguese control Brazil Spanish have a lot more money than Portuguese because of Silver/Gold mines in Mexico and Peru Guanajuato (Mexico) Potosi (Peru)
Brazil has sugar plantations Jesuits spread throughout both Central and South America and Catholicism spreads LA Background 1500-1700 In your table groups define hegemony: System of control through the use of soft power; alliances and agreements amongst the people that are being controlled This is done in two ways in LA Through the use of Catholicism
LA societies are patriarchal From about 1500-1750 LA goes through the process of Transculturation The mixing of two (or more) cultures both on a cultural level and on a race level LA Background 1750 and beyond In about 1750 things change, LA goes through the Bourbon (Spanish) or Pombuline (Portuguese) reforms Monarchs need LA colonies to server their
economic interests explicitly Raise taxes and prices of goods Creoles lose ruling power to Peninsulares Got rid of Jesuits Monarchs in Europe felt that the Jesuits had too much control over political affairs in LA LA Absolute Problems Caste system perpetuates haves vs. have nots Challenging (like in all caste systems) to move up Can move up and down in caste system based on how much money you have money whitens
Castes go from European (high) to full blood Indigenous (low) Creoles tend to feel stronger nationalism to colonies than homeland True in North American colonies too Creoles resent Peninsulares for loyalty to the motherland (feels like rule by a foreign power) Lower classes severely oppressed by both (this is not their Revolution) groups through peonage (debt) & encomienda system Spain and Portugal both tend to rule more absolute & directly than other coloniescontinue to exercise
hegemony a lot LA - Tupac Amaru & other failed attempts Series of minor revolts throughout Latin America in 18th century Generally tend to be amongst oppressed workers, natives, or renegade early caudillos outside of cities Sometimes put down, sometimes not, usually not a major threat till they disrupt the economy or impact cities
LA - Tupac Amaru & other failed attempts Most famous is Tupac Amaru IIs attempted revolt in modern Peru Amaru was descendent (maybe) of last Incan king, who rallied peasants, natives and lower class creoles in guerilla war Betrayed & executed (in horrific fashion, Ill get to this) led to series of laws by Spanish promising reform (but not delivering) and cracking down on native culture
Made Peninsulars uneasy & showed Spanish did not have absolute control Peninsular War & Bonapartism in South America Late 1807 Napoleon moves on Iberia Brings great reforms but underestimates nationalism Makes brother the King of Spain Effectively causes Old Spain to lose control on Latin America Institutes economic reform in Latin America but also causes nationalism to ramp up
Makes Creoles feel like they can and need to take over their countries for themselves rather than be ruled by Napoleon (done in name of popular sovereignty) Marches on Lisbon Causes the entire Portuguese court (with help of GB) to relocate to Rio de Janeiro South American Revolutions Outside of Caribbean can basically be broken down into three key groups: Mexico
Brazil Bolivarian Revolutions (rest of Latin America) Causes variety of different ideas, leaders and results to occur (Bolivar, Hidalgo & Morales, Pedro I, etc.) Leads to popularity of Caudillos and Conservative Rule many argue one ruling class replaced another & little changed for a average person Church generally keeps power it doesnt have in Europe Everywhere but Cuba is independent by 1830s Latin American Rev. Questions
Answer the following questions when explaining your revolution to the other groups 1. What was the spark that caused the revolution, who was its leader, the course of the revolution (if applicable)? 2. Explain the difference between life before and after your revolution 3. Was life better before or after the revolution occurred?
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