Transfusion Pathology

Transfusion Pathology

Neoplasia III: Cancer Epidemiology Kristine Krafts, M.D. Neoplasia Outline Tumor nomenclature Tumor characteristics Epidemiology Cancer pathogenesis

Neoplasia Outline Tumor nomenclature Tumor characteristics Epidemiology Cancer incidence Environmental variables Age Heredity

Neoplasia Outline Tumor nomenclature Tumor characteristics Epidemiology Cancer incidence Cancer Incidence Roughly 1.5 million new cases of cancer every year

>500,000 deaths from cancer every year Cancer is 2nd leading cause of death (after heart disease) Most common cancers Men: Prostate Women: Breast Deadliest cancers Men: Lung

Women: Lung Recent Changes in Death Rates Decreased death rates: Cervical cancer (pap smears) Colon cancer (earlier detection) Breast cancer (earlier detection) Lung cancer in men (less smokers) Some types of leukemia (new treatment)

Increased death rates: Lung cancer in women (more smokers) Neoplasia Outline Tumor nomenclature Tumor characteristics Epidemiology Cancer incidence Environmental variables

Some Stats Breast cancer death rate in US is 5x that in Japan! Stomach cancer death rate in Japan is 7x that in US! Liver cancer infrequent in US, common in Africa. Probably due to environmental (not hereditary) factors. Most sporadic cancers are caused by environmental factors.

Environmental Carcinogens Sunlight: skin cancer Smoking: lung cancer Alcohol: liver, breast cancers HPV: cervical carcinoma Occupational carcinogens

Asbestos roofing, tiles mesothelioma Benzene light oil, solvents

leukemia Beryllium missile fuel lung cancer

Ethylene oxide ripening agents, fumigants leukemia Radon uranium decay, mines lung cancer

Vinyl chloride refrigerants angiosarcoma and liver cancer Nickel

welding, ceramics nose and liver cancers Cadmium batteries prostate cancer

Neoplasia Outline Tumor nomenclature Tumor characteristics Epidemiology Cancer incidence Environmental variables Age

Age Cancer is more frequent at the two extremes of age. Elderly Frequency of cancer increases with age Most cancer deaths occur between 55-75 Children 10% of all childhood deaths Leukemia/lymphoma, CNS tumors, sarcoma

Neoplasia Outline Tumor nomenclature Tumor characteristics Epidemiology Cancer incidence Environmental variables Age Heredity

Three Types of Hereditary Cancer Inherited cancer syndromes Familial cancers Syndromes of defective DNA repair Three Types of Hereditary Cancer Inherited cancer syndromes

Dominantly inherited Retinoblastoma Familial polyposis coli Familial polyposis coli Three Types of Hereditary Cancer Inherited cancer syndromes

Familial cancers Most common sporadic cancers have familial forms too Breast, colon, ovary, brain Occur earlier, are often deadlier Three Types of Hereditary Cancer Inherited cancer syndromes

Familial cancers Syndromes of defective DNA repair Recessively inherited Xeroderma pigmentosum

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