A Presentation Treatment of Abnormal Psychology Historical Treatment Historically, persons suffering from psychological disorders have been treated with an array of harsh and gentle methods Trephination
Blood letting Physical violence Electro shock therapy . Reformers Dorothea Dix in the 1800s Philippe Pinel in France
Philippe Pinel Psychotherapy vs. Biomedical Therapy A trained therapist uses psychological techniques to assist someone seeking to overcome difficulties or achieve personal growth
Treatment of dissociative disorders, anxiety, mood, personality, somatoform Treatment in which prescribed medication or medical procedure that acts directly on patients nervous system
Schizophrenia, depression Eclectic approachcombination Types of Psychotherapy
Psychoanalysis Commonalities: Humanistic Hope for demoralized Behavioral people Cognitive Establish a new perspective for
patients Create an empathetic, trusting, and caring relationship between therapist and patient Psychoanalysis Psychological problems (usually anxiety) are caused by repressed impulses and
childhood conflicts that are stored in the unconscious mind To solve these problems, bring the repressed conflict into the conscious awareness Psychoanalysis Methods 1. Free Association Patient lays down on a couch and
relaxes Without looking at the therapist, patient talks about whatever they want to. Therapist writes down what patient says, noting resistance (blocks of free association), and interprets its meaning Ex. My mother once told me to err.never mind; its not
important. Psychoanalysis Methods 2. Dream Interpretation -Dreams give clues to the meaning of repressed thoughts -Manifest content vs. latent content -Freud believed that he could distinguish latent content to further delve into the unconscious
Rorschach Inkblot Test Test used by Freudian psychoanalysts to determine latent content If for example my manifest content from the four pictures is (starting from left to right) two seeing horses rubbing butts, a four armed boxer alien with two penises, two seahorses comparing penises, and an alien looking at a penis; the therapist would look at the
theme of my manifest content (figure it out for yourself) and put together the latent content and hoping that it reflects issues in my unconscious. Dream Scenario Before I went to bed, I was anxious about an upcoming test. My palms were sweaty, and my stomach kept turning in a knot. When I fell asleep, I dreamt that I was in the Sahara Desert. Sand was all around me, and suddenly, there was a brown spotted
snake that was the length of a car. The snake slithered towards me, but my legs were frozen. The snake kept getting closer to me and in an instant, threw his head back then forward, sinking his fangs into my leg as he did so. The pain was excruciating, like a burning and freezing at the same time What is the manifest content? What is the latent content? Psychoanalysis Methods
3. Hypnosis -state of heightened suggestibility -Freud believed that under hypnosis, one could access their unconscious easier -we will learn more about this in December Psychodynamic Therapy Today Engage in talk therapy face to face about once a week
Therapist will interpret common, recurring themes, from childhood and adult life and give insight into the persons depression or anxiety https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= QV6DpJKW6a0 Example of insight http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_ UtFKgeHsY
Humanistic Approach Aim to boost self-fulfillment by helping people grow in self-awareness and selfacceptance by proving clients with new insights Different from psychoanalysis in that humanists Focus on the present and future Focus on conscious thoughts Take responsibility for actions Promote growth instead of curing illness
Carl Rogers-Humanistic Client-centered therapy-focus on conscious self-perceptions Therapist listens without judging or interpreting Therapist exhibits genuineness, acceptance, and empathy for client Active listening-echoing,
restating, and seeking clarification Client-centered therapy Accept and understand the client, providing unconditional positive regard Paraphrase Invite clarification Reflect feelings Example page 6
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RMEQkBLf HMQ Check How do psychoanalysts and humanists try to help people deal with their problems? By giving them insight! Behavior Therapies
Doubt healing power of selfawareness View maladaptive symptoms as learned behaviors that can be modified 1. Classical conditioning techniques 2. Operant conditioning techniques Classical Conditioning Techniques Suppose a child gets scared when they see furry bunnies. Could I recondition the
child to like bunnies? Counterconditioning-A behavioral therapy that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors. Exposure therapy Aversive conditioning Exposure Therapy Mary Cover Jones in the 1920s Recondition Little Albert to like bunnies by
associating bunnies with enjoyable events like eating Let Albert eat a cookie while the bunny runs around Exposing people to what they normally avoid was finally recognized in the 1950s with Joseph Wolpe Systematic desensitization Type of exposure therapy
A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. (phobia) Week 1-show Albert a picture of a bunny eating a lollipop Week 2-ask Albert to draw a picture of a bunny Week 3-Have a bunny play in a play pen in Alberts room Week 4-Ask Albert to touch bunny while eating a cookie Week 5-Albert can pet bunny in his lap Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
Help overcome anxiety or phobia Aversive Conditioning Counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior Give a ticket citation for smoking in bars Treat nail biting by painting nails with nasty tasting nail polish
Link drinking alcohol with nausea Sometimes unsuccessful in the long run Operant Conditioning Behavior modification-reinforcing desired behavior and withholding reinforcement with undesired behavior Shaping Children with autism learn to interact
People with schizophrenia learn to behave more rationally Token economy-patients receive a token for positive behaviors; tokens can be used to purchase treats or earn privileges Cognitive Therapy Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting Based on the assumption that thoughts
intervene between events and our emotional reactors Example for depression: suggestion is criticism, disagreement is dislike, friendliness is pity Cognitive Therapy ex.
Aaron Beck sought to reverse clients catastrophizing beliefs Cognitive Therapy Donald Meichenbaum wanted to change negative self-talk Stress inoculation training: teaching people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations Positive talk before a test
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior) Anxiety and mood disorders Lucy from the Big Bang Theory Biomedical Therapy
Cause of disorder is organic (brain, blood chemistry, neurotransmitter, etc.) Psychiatry Methods Drug Therapy Brain Stimulation Psychosurgery Therapeutic Lifestyle Change Drug Therapy
Psychopharmacology-study of drug effects on mind and behavior Types Antipsychotic Antianxiety Antidepressant Mood stabilizers Antipsychotic Drugs Calming drugs used to treat psychosis
(break with reality), such as schizophrenia Dampen responsiveness to irrelevant stimuli Thorazine (chlorpromazine) blocks dopamine receptorspositive symptoms Can produce tardive dyskinesia (involuntary movements of face, tongue, and limbs) Clozapine target both serotonin and dopamine and help with negative symptoms
Antianxiety Drugs Used to control anxiety and agitation Depress the central nervous system Xanax and Ativan Physiological dependence led to criticism Antidepressant Drugs Drugs used to treat depression by lifting people up from their depression Now used to treat anxiety, such as OCD
Increase norepinephrine and serotonin Prozac (fluoxetine) blocks reabsorption and removal of serotonin Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) such as Zoloft and Paxil Mood Stabilizing Drugs Used to treat bipolar disorder Lithium salt Depakote (used to treat epilepsy)
Brain Stimulation Magnetic Stimulation (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) for depression Deep-Brain Stimulation for depression Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Used for people with depression for whom drug therapy is not effective Once considered barbaric, but now humane
Psychosurgery Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue Lobotomy developed by Moniz Not widely used because of its severity Therapeutic Lifestyle Change
Leicester High School offers 9 Advanced Placement (AP) classes. Score on the exam is 1-5 with 5 being the best. With a score of 3 or higher students can earn college credit. Scores of 3,4 or 5 are known as...
Content Scenarioes Background material From telecom and pervasive computing Overview of the ENME service implementation Discussion Ideas and issues for the health care domain Requirements of ENME We base our implementation on SIP We separate between the ENME subscriber and...
Experimental Units, Subjects, Treatments. An experiment is a study in which we actually do something (a treatment) to people, animals, or objects (the experimental units) to observe the response. Here is the basic vocabulary of experiments. An . experimental unit...
The CPU interprets machine instructions (from programs which are in main memory). Some categories of instructions (continued): Operate. execute arithmetic, comparisons, logic or shifts using data in registers, storing the result in a register. Jump. branch to an address within...
In the dialogue, Plato asks Theaetetus, a young Greek mathematician, and also his mentor Theodorus, another mathematician, what the essence of knowledge is: "What is knowledge?" Theaetetus proposes three theories of the essence of knowledge, and by the end of...
Superficial cranial wounds and cranio-cerebral wounds Definition of wounds A wider concept then usual Communication with the interior of the cranial cavity can exist with an undamaged skin Venous anastomoses CSF fistula Wounds Unpenetrated Penetrated Perforant Unpenetrated wounds One or...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!