Two DP Layers within the Central Kurdish Noun Phrase

Two DP Layers within the Central Kurdish Noun Phrase

Two DP Layers within the Central Kurdish Noun Phrase Rebwar Shafie Tahir PhD Candidate 2/7/20 From NP to DP: Some theoretical background Early stages of Generative Grammar: A noun phrase is the projection of the head noun, whereas other accompanying elements such as articles, determiners and adjectives are modifying elements (see Jackendoff 1977). Abneys (1987) DP Hypothesis: A noun phrase is headed by a functional category realized by a determiner (D) with NP as its complement. Functional heads following DP Hypothesis: Any lexical or inflectional category which has a grammatical function and provides semantic content is the head of a maximal projection (Chomsky 1995). 2/7/20 The Noun Phrase in CK Functional elements to express (in)definiteness in Central Kurdish (CK, henceforth). (1) (3) esp-eke horse-DEF

esp-k horse-INDEF (2) the horse (4) a horse esp-e horse-IZ zil-eke big-DEF esp-k-i horse-INDEF-IZ zil big the big horse a big horse eke in Hawrami is regarded as head of DP (Holmberg and Odden 2004, 2008). The D category in CK is associated only with (in)definiteness features. 2/7/20

Definiteness and the status of the morpheme -e Demonstratives are accompanied by the clitic e attaching to the noun or to the end of postnominal modifier(s). (5) em this pyaw-e man-DEF this man (6) ew pyaw-e that man-IZ pir-e old-DEF that old man Previous assumptions about -e -e is part of the prenominal demonstrative article (Fattah 1997: 181 and pengin 2013: 107) My assumption e is a marker of definiteness and the prenominal part marks the deictic feature. 2/7/20 Evidence that e is a definite marker: In a narrative, a noun can carry the inflection -e (7)

in-k ra-y woman-INDEF way-3SG mindal-eke-i, child-DEF-3SG in-e woman-DEF de-kird berew PROG-make.PST hawar-i shout-3SG towards me us de-kird

PROG-make.PST legel with bo for du two yarmeti help A woman was running towards us with her two kids; the woman was calling for help. kam which and i what The interrogative quantifier which marks definiteness, while what indicates indefiniteness (Pesetsky 1987, 2000; Gebhardt 2009). (8) kam sw-e? which apple-DEF 2/7/20 which apple? (9) i what

sw-k ? apple-INDEF what apple? The quantifier her any/each The quantifier each encodes definiteness or specificity, while any expresses indefiniteness (Beghelli and Stowell 1997; Giannakidou 1998, 1999, 2004; Vendler 1962: 157-159). (9) ba her kes-e sw-k let each person-DEF apple-INDEF Let each person (of them) take an apple. ber-t. take.subju-3SG (10) her kes-k hat bo re yarmeti any person-INDEF come.PST to here help Help any anybody who comes here. 2/7/20

bi-de IMP-give.1SG The demonstratives can occur without e, where the relevant nominal construction is devoid of any sense of definiteness. (11) swalker-eke deger-t le em ma(*-e) bo ew ma(*-e). beggar-DEF roam.PRS-3SG from this house(*DEF) to that house The beggar goes from one house to another. Vocative constructions are standardly considered definite (Lyons 1999: 152). (12) daik-e mother-V(DEF) you, mummy (13) kurd-in-e kurd-PL-V(DEF) you, Kurds 2/7/20 Cross-linguistic evidence of definite markers accompanying demonstratives is found in several languages including Romanian, Macedonian, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Indonesian, Irish, Spanish

and Greek. (14) toj covek-ot this man-the this man (15) tazi kniga-ta this book-the this book (16) aftos o andras this the man this man Macedonian Giusti (1992: 7) colloquial Bulgarian Franks (2001: 19) Greek Panagiotidis (2000: 718) Thus, apart from the indefinite marker -k, CK has two markers of definiteness: eke and e. 2/7/20 Question: Are the (in)definite markers all realized by the same D category? Answer: Given the surface order inside the DP, the answer is negative. (17) esp-eke-an horse-DEF-PL

the horses (18) esp-e zil-eke-an horse-IZ big-DEF-PL the big horses (19) ew esp-an-e that horse-PL-DEF those horses (20) ew esp-e zil-an-e that esp-IZ big-PL-DEF those big horses Number projects a phrase (see Ritter 1991, 1992, 1995) -an is the Num head of a functional projection (NumP).

The two definite markers appear in different positions : eke precedes an, whereas e follows it. If DP is realized by discourse-related functional elements, CK should have two DP layers with NumP intermediate between them. 2/7/20 Theoretical background and assumptions A non-lexicalist approach: Nouns enter the derivation from the lexicon as bare stems. If a noun appears with inflectional elements, it must have received these inflections in the derivation (Baker 1988; Cinque 1999; Julien 2002, Marantz 1997). The LCA (Kayne 1994) Phrases with head-final order are derived by movement of the complement to a position asymmetrically c-commanding the head. Since the noun sw apple in (17) appears before the functional inflections, it must be in a derived position. 2/7/20 Based on Chomskys (1995) minimalist derivational theory, the structure for the noun phrases in (21) and (2) are as represented in (23) and (24), respectively. (21) sw-ek-an (22) ew

sw-an-e that apple-PL-DEF those apples apple-DEF-PL the apples (23) (24) NumP DP DP NumP Num D DP NumP -e -an

NumP DP Num D NP -eke sw -an NP DemP NP ew sw The noun phrase in (21) projects a DP contained by the projection of Number (23), that in (22) projects a DP which contains NumP (24). 2/7/20

Position of demonstratives: Demonstratives merge somewhere lower than definite article (Biberauer et al. 2014; Roberts 2011; Guardiano 2010). Motivation for NP movement: If movement is always triggered by some feature (Chomsky 2000, 2001, 2008), D and Num should carry an EPP feature. Purely syntactic features that trigger movement are widely supported in recent literature (Biberauer et al. 2014; Pesetsky and Torrego 2001; Roberts and Roussou 2003). Linearization movement Drawing on the LCA, Biberauer et al. (2014) argue that the head of a head-final construction bears a movement triggering feature moving the sister of the head to the specifier of that head. 2/7/20 Questions about two D categories: Why two DPs? Does the difference in the structure indicate a difference between the feature make-up of the two D categories? Could one D position encode some feature not shared by the other D? Where is k realized? 2/7/20 The two D positions: Definiteness: the grammaticalization of specificity and uniqueness (En 1991; Lyons 1999). Uniqueness: the referent is familiar to the speaker and the hearer (Anderssen 2007: 255).

Specificity: the referent familiar to the speaker, but not (necessarily) to the hearer (Anderssen 2007: 255). My proposal The lower D position realized by eke is the locus of definiteness proper entailing both specificity and uniqueness. The higher D spelled out by e encodes the single feature of specificity subsumed under definiteness. 2/7/20 In possessive constructions -eke denotes definiteness, while e encodes specificity. (25) kur-eke-m naw-i boy-DEF-1SG name-3SG My sons name is Azad. Azad-e. Azad-AUX.PRS (26) ew kur-e-m naw-i that boy-DEF-1SG name-3SG That son of mines name is Azad. Azad-e Azad-AUX.PRS

The DP kur-eke-m my son in (25), is both unique and specific. However, ew kur-e-m that son of mine in (26) is specific but not unique. 2/7/20 Further evidence that e marks specificity in CK In morphology, too, -e indicates specificity. (27) wiax-i berz (28) wiax-e berz-e animal-IZ tall animal-IZ tall-DEF tall animals horse or mule, literally, the tall animal wiax-i berz tall animals in (27) is generic. wiax-e berz-e literally, the tall animal denotes a horse or a mule. More examples: (29) sed hundred hundred sed-e hundred-SPEC century

(31) bin dest-e under hand-SPEC coin flipping, game 2/7/20 (30) dwan two two dwan-e two-SPEC twin (32) du kilk-e two tail-SPEC earwig, an insect with two tails Cross-linguistic evidence. Articles which mark specificity not definiteness are rather widespread (Lyons 1999: 59) . l in Brazilian Portuguese is a functional category marking specificity (Pereira 2010). (33) essa mulher l this woman the

this woman Mavea, a language spoken in Vanuatu uses distinct articles to mark definiteness and specificity Gurin (2007) Rijkhoffs (2002) survey of 85 languages: -Definite articles co-occurring with demonstratives in languages like Abkhaz and Hungarian are not associated with definiteness, but with specificity. 2/7/20 Position of k: k is a marker of indefiniteness, not just a diachronic remnant of the numeral k one as claimed by Lyons (1995: 95). -k can co-occur with plural marking (34). The definite marker -e has the same morpheme order as -k with respect to the plural marker (35), which is different from that of eke (36). (34) kes-an-k person-PL-INDEF (some) people (35) ew kes-an-e that person-PL-DEF those people (36) kes-eke-an person-DEF-PL the people Given its distribution , -k merges with NumP similarly to the definite marker e.

2/7/20 (37) Shows the structure for (34), compared to the general proposed structure for the CK DP (38) (37) (38) DP DP DP D D NumP -k NumP (-k), (-e) Num NP -an

kes NumP Num -an Semantic evidence: k encodes specificity only, similarly to e. (39) kur-k-m naw-i Azad-e. boy-INDEF-1SG name-3SG Azad-AUX.PRS A son of mines name is Azad. (40) ew kur-e-m naw-i that boy-DEF-1SG name-3SG That son of mines name is Azad. Azad-e Azad-AUX.PRS Both DPs in (39, 40) are interpreted as specific but not unique. 2/7/20 DP D

NP (-eke) esp Thank you for your attention! Any questions ? 2/7/20

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