Types of Agricultural - Amy Robbins

Types of Agricultural - Amy Robbins

Types of Agricultural Whittleseys Regions (1936) Whittleseys classification is a widely accepted one and is based on the following factors: Crop and livestock association

Labor vs. capital intensity Productivity Consumption pattern of production (do they eat what they grow?) Methods and techniques used Mapping Agriculture

Click to learn Regional Overviews Click to learn

Agriculture in LDCs Shifting Cultivation Pastoral Nomadism

Plantation Intensive Subsistence/Wet Intensive Subsistence/Dry

Pastoral Nomadism: Dry Regions A form of subsistence agriculture based on the herding of domesticated animals. May combine some reliance on sedentary agriculture with the

herding of livestock. Commonly, women and children of a nomadic group tend to crops at a fixed location, while man herd. Shifting Cultivation: Tropical Regions Characterized by two distinctive features:

Farmers clear land for planting by slashing vegetation and burning the debris, then grow crops on a cleared field for only a few years until soil nutrients are depleted. Fields are left fallow for many years so the soil can recover. Land Ownership Traditionally, land collectively owned by village. Today, private individuals now own land, especially

in Latin America. Intensive Subsistence Farming Feeds most of the of the worlds people who live in LDCs Farmers work intensively to subsist on a parcel of land. Most of the work is done by hand or with animals rather than machines.

Virtually all available land is used for production. Parcels of land are much smaller than elsewhere in world. Intensive Subsistence- Wet Rice Wet rice: rice is planted in a nursery and then seedlings are moved to a flooded field

to promote growth. The dominant type of agriculture in Southeastern China East India Much of Southeast Asia

intensive rice Intensive Subsistence- More than Rice! Wheat and barley is grown when climate

prevents farmers from growing wet rice in portions of Asia, especially where summer precipitation levels are too low and winters are too harsh.

Intensive Subsistence Farming: Dry Climate wheat barley

Plantation Farming Specialize in 1-2 crops

Crops are grown in LDCs consumed in MDCs Often owned by large corporations Low wages for workers Click to learn

Agriculture in MDCs Dairying Grain Mixed Crop and Livestock

Ranching Mediterranean Commercial Gardening MDCs: Commercial Agriculture

Agribusiness is commonly used to refer to these types of farming listed, because the family farm is not an isolated activity but is integrated into a large food-production industry. Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming

Mixes crops and livestock- most of the crops are fed to animals instead of humans. Most land is used to grow crops but most of its income is from the sale of animal products Farmers can distribute the workload more evenly through the year, because crops require less attention Typically involves crop rotation, practice of rotating use of

different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil. Dairy Farming von Thunen Alert! Most important type of commercial agriculture in the first ring outside the large cities because of transportation factors.

Ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied is known as the milkshed. Advancements in transportation have increased the radius of milksheds to 300 miles. Dairy farmers typically sell their milk to wholesalers who later distribute it to retailers. Retailers then sell it to consumers in shops or at home.

Click to learn Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming Predominant type of farming in southeastern U.S.

Commonly referred to as truck farming Grow many of the following fruits and vegetables that consumers in developed countries demand: apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, mushrooms, potatoes

Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming Some of the fruits and vegetables are sold fresh to consumers, but most are sold to large processors for canning or freezing. Truck farms are highly efficient large-scale operations that take full advantage of machines at all stages of the growing process. Labor costs are kept down by hiring migrant farm workers.

Specialization in a few crops is common. Grain Farming Distinguished from mixed crop and livestock farming, because crops are grown primarily for human consumption. Farms sell their output to manufacturers of food products, such as breakfast cereals and bread.

Characteristics of a grain farms: Heavily mechanized Farms large in areal extent Oriented to consumer preferences Grain Farmers: Americas Bread Basket

Mediterranean Agriculture These regions border a sea, and most are on west coasts of continents. Most crops are grown for human consumption olives and grapes are two most important cash crops.

About half of the land here is used to grow cereals. Mediterranean Agriculture: California Livestock Ranching: Dry Regions

Ranching is the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. Well suited for semiarid or arid land Today, ranching has become part of the meat-processing industry where new methods of breeding and sources of water and feed are embraced.

Great Review! Click to learn

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