From Umayyad to Abbasid ARAB ISLAMI Empires C Umayyad and Abbasid
Rise of Abbasid Party The party traced its descent from Muhammads uncle, al-Abbas. Al-Abbas great great grandson, Abu al-Abbas led his forces against the Umayyads. Shia were his allies. Mawali (Islamic converts) also supported him to gain acceptance in the community of believers. Captured Umayyad capital in Syria (Battle of River Zab). At Reconciliation Banquet al-Abbas slaughtered remaining Umayyad family.
Early Abbasid Era Began to reject Shia and Malawi alliesand defended Sunni Islam. Built a centralized, absolutist imperial order. New capital: Baghdad The Round City (2km in diameter) on Tigris River Baghdad became the richest city in the world (only Constantinople came close) Sat on jeweled thrones. Had palaces and harems! Image of elitism was important. For more than a century, able to collect revenue and
preserve law over much of the empire. Islamic Conversion and Mawali Acceptance Mass conversions to Islam were encouraged throughout the empire. Most converts were won over peacefully because of appeal of Islamic beliefs and advantages they enjoyed: - didnt have to pay head tax - educational opportunities - jobs as traders, administrators, judges
Town & Country: Commercial Boom and Agrarian Expansion Abbasid Era was a great time of urban expansion and growth of merchant and landlord classes. Tang & Song Dynasties in China were also reviving middle merchant class. (results of falls of Rome/Han) Arab DHOWS - trading vessels with
triangular (lateen) sails were used from Mediterranean to S. China Sea. This style later influenced European ship design. Town & Country: Commercial Boom and Agrarian Expansion, cont.. Muslim merchants formed joint ventures with Christian and Jewish traders. Because each merchant had a different Sabbath, they could work 7 days/week.
Merchants grew rich supplying cities with goods throughout the empire. Much wealth went to charity (required by Quran). Hospitals and medical care of the Abbasid Empire surpassed those of any other civilization of that time. Town & Country: Commercial Boom and Agrarian Expansion, cont.. Much unskilled labor was left to slaves. Some slaves were able rise to positions of
power and gain freedom (like what other empire?) Huge estates might have slaves, indentured servants or sharecroppers. The First Flowering of Islamic Learning Early contributions from Abbasid were great mosques and palaces. Ex: Dome of the Rock Advances in religious, legal and philosophical discourse. Science and Math! Abbasid scholars preserved Greek works of medicine, algebra, geometry,
astronomy, anatomy, and ethics. Arabic traders in India carried the Indian number system across Mediter. and into Northern Europe. These number systems became ESSENTIAL to Scientific Revolution in W. Europe. Global Connections: Early Islam & the World Abbasid Empire was the go-between for the ancient civilizations of the Eastern Hemispherethis role grew as Arab trade networks expanded.
Islam pioneered patterns of organization and thinking that would affect human societies in major ways for centuries. 5 Centuries = Spread of Islam played a dominant role in the Afro-Eurasian World. Global Connections: Early Islam & the World cont. In the midst of achievement, Muslims were people had some
growing disadvantages, especially to Europeans. Muslim divisions would leave openings for political problems. Growing intolerance and orthodoxy led to the belief that the vast Islamic world contained all requirements for civilized life, which caused Muslim people to grow less receptive to outside influence and innovationsled to isolation at a time when Christian rivals were in a period of experimentation and exploration. Between the 9th-13th centuries revolts amongst the peasantry, increased slavery, and a decline position of women
Shia revolts and assassinations, decadence of Abbasid Caliphs, succession challenge (see Harem) Harun al-Rashd
Decadent ruler Dependent on corrupt Advisers (Jafar) Built huge mosques and palaces Collected huge treasure troves 1001 nights Civil war after his death Agrarian disorder Harem
Seclusion of women Concubines-slaves who could gain freedom by bearing sons Caliphs spent more time with concubines than wives Women and concubines maneuvered to get their sons succession to the throne Womens role considerable diminished than at the beginning of the era (veiling) Nomadic Invaders
Lost areas to regional invaders Caliphs became like puppets to Central Asian steppe nomads (Turks, Buyids) Title of Sultan (Victorious)taken by Buyids Mongols destroy last caliphate ( open way for Ottoman Turk) Continuities and Change Arabic lingua franca (language of
trade) Sharia law ( along with quadis and ulema) Umma still Muslim community Trade along overland and maritime continues (although different groups involved) 5 pillars Advances through adopting and adapting Slavery Patriarchy
Agriculture Importance of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem Mosques New methods of agriculture New trading connections (banking, guilds, regulations through Sharia) Urbanization Mawali (Islamic converts) Sunni/Shiite schism Crusades
Advances in Math and science Baghdad as House of Wisdom Trading connections across silk route with Tang/Song Dynasties Use of Dhow and Lateen sail in the 7 seas (Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean, Black, Arabian and Caspian) Pax Islamica Harem Corruption Intolerance and cultural insularity
COT: Middle East 1200-1450 From 1200-1450 in the Middle East the role of Islam and its practices would dominate theocratic rule of the Caliphate (Umayyad and Abbasid) through sharia and a system of judges (Quadis) and jurists( ulema) dominating both overland (silk routes) and maritime trade routes (Indian Ocean) through new technologies (dhow, lateen sail) and ideas( banking and guilds) , however, the cultural insularity of Harun Al Rashd and the increasing corruption of using wealth for personal projects would lead to the conquest of the Mongols and Turks thus ending the reign of Islams Golden Age.
I From 1200-1450 in the Middle East the banner of Islam would maintain religious and cultural unity despite political fragmentation, trade would increase due to the regulation of trade and Muslim diasporic communities and the once great Golden Age of Islam in the Abbasid Caliphate would crumble and fall due to the reversal of tolerance, elevation of women and corruption of rulers. The Muslim Umma or community would transcend cultural and language boundaries and unite its adherents through the 5 pillars, hadith, Koran and
Sharia. Trade which existed over the Mediterranean and Silk and Indian routes would now increase amongst Muslim diasporic communities in South Asia, West Africa, Central Asia and West Europe governed and managed by the laws and culture of Islam.
The rise of the Abbasid and all its innovations in science, math, trade, agriculture and justice would be reversed by Harun Al Rashd's decadents lifestyle, corrupt advisers like Jafar and the seclusion of the women in the harem. These concepts provided stability, order and followers to identify themselves not as being
led by a ruler but followers of a larger religious community uniting all society. Individuals would redistribute wealth through the Zakat ( charity) and would feel welcome as merchant travelers and greeted in Mosques and Madrassas ( schools) where trade would be fair and regulated using innovations like
banking, joint ventures, and shipping utilizing dhows with their lateen sails. The reversal of all of the beneficial and tolerant policies of his predecessors would leave often corrupt officials to look out after their own greedy and nefarious wants over the needs of the many losing, finally to attacking and marauding
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