Understanding and Planning Reports and Proposals

Understanding and Planning Reports and Proposals

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Excellence in in Business Communication Communication Business Chapter 11 Planning Reports and Proposals Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives (1 of 3) 1. Adapt the three-step writing process to reports and proposals. 2. Describe an effective process for

conducting business research, explain how to evaluate the credibility of an information source, and identify the five ways to use research results. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 3 Learning Objectives (2 of 3) 3. Explain the role of secondary research, and describe the two major categories of online research tools. 4. Explain the role of primary research, and identify the two

most common forms of primary research for business communication purposes. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 4 Learning Objectives (3 of 3) 5. Explain how to plan informational reports and website content. 6. Identify the three most common ways to organize analytical reports. 7. Explain how to plan proposals.

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 5 Applying the the Three-Step Three-Step Applying Writing Process Process to Reports and and Proposals Proposals Reports (LO 1) Adapt the three-step writing process to reports and proposals. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 11 - 6 Categories of Typical Reports Informational Reports Monitor and Control Operations Implement Policies and Procedures Demonstrate Compliance Document Progress Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Analytical Reports Assess Opportunities Proposals Internal Proposals Solve Problems Support Decisions External Proposals Chapter 11 - 7

Analyzing the Situation Compose a Statement of Purpose State why youre preparing the report. State what you plan deliver. Prepare a Work Planto for the Project Identify project-related tasks.

Establish a timeline for the project. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 8 Sample Work Plan Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 9 Gathering Information Planning Planning Your Your Research Research Statement

of Purpose Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Audience Audience Needs Needs Informatio n Needs Chapter 11 - 10 Selecting the Right Combination of Media and Channels Media Requirements

Feedback Preferences Document Uses Media Choice Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 11 Organizing Your Information More Less Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Resistant Audience Receptive Audience Direct Approach Less Indirect Approach More Chapter 11 - 12 Supporting Your Your Messages Messages

Supporting with Credible Information Information (LO 2) Describe an effective process for conducting business research, explain how to evaluate the credibility of an information source, and identify the five ways to use research results. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 13 Applying the Research Process 1. Plan your Research 2. Locate Data and Information you Need 3. Process Data and Information

4. Apply your Findings 5. Manage Information Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 14 Planning Your Research (1) Develop a Problem Statement (2) Identify Essential Information (3) Generate Research Questions Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 15

Avoiding Ethical Lapses Keep an open mind. Respect the privacy of participants. Document and credit sources. Respect intellectual property rights. Dont distort information from sources. Dont misrepresent your intentions. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 16

Locating Data and Information Secondary Research Primary Research Books Surveys Magazines Interviews Newspapers

Observations Public Websites Experiments Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 17 Evaluating Information Sources Reputation Methodology Potential Bias

Verification Purpose Completeness Credibility Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Logical Scrutiny Chapter 11 - 18 Using Research Results Analyze the data. Quote, paraphrase, or

summarize information. Draw conclusions. Make recommendations. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 19 Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Information (1 of 2) Avoid Plagiarism Quoting Quoting Cite Sources

Paraphrasing Paraphrasing Observe Context Summarizing Summarizing Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 20 Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Information (2 of 2) Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 11 - 21 Drawing Conclusions and Making Recommendations Conclusions Interpretation of the Facts in the Report Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Recommendati ons Suggestions for What to Do about the Facts Chapter 11 - 22

Conducting Secondary Conducting Research Research (LO 3) Explain the role of secondary research, and describe the two major categories of online research tools. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 23 Finding Information at a Library Newspapers or Periodicals Almanacs and

Statistics Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Business Books Membership Directories Government Databases Publications Chapter 11 - 24 Finding Information Online Actively Actively

search for for search existing existing information information Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Monitor Monitor selected selected sources for for sources new new

information information Chapter 11 - 25 Online Search Tools (General-Purpose Search Engines) Opportunitie s Challenge s Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Scan Millions of Websites Search by Keyword

Rank the Results No Human Editors Wide Variety of Results Cant Reach Deep Internet Chapter 11 - 26 Online Search Tools (Improve on General Search Engines) Web Directories Metasearch Engines

Online Databases Human editors evaluate and classify websites Format searches for multiple search engines Journals, magazines, and newspapers

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 27 Online Monitoring Tools Subscribing to to Subscribing Newsfeeds Newsfeeds Automaticall Automaticall Monitoring yy Monitoring Information

Information Sources Sources Following People People on on Following Twitter Twitter Setting Up Up Online Online Alerts Alerts Setting Using Specialized Specialized Using

Monitors Monitors Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 28 Search Tips Optimize Searches ********** Interpret Results Carefully Keyword Searches Boolean Searches Natural Language

Searches Forms-Based Searches Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 29 Using Search Tools Effectively Think before you search. Read instructions; pay attention to details. Review search/display options carefully. Try a variety of search terms. Vary the number of search terms. Look beyond the first page of results.

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 30 Conducting Primary Primary Research Research (LO 4) Explain the role of primary research, and identify the two most common forms of primary research for business communication purposes. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 31 Conducting Surveys

Provide Clear Clear Instructions Instructions Provide Keep Questionnaires Questionnaires Short Short and and Easy Easy Keep to Use Use to Avoid Asking Asking Leading Leading Questions Questions Avoid

Obtain aa Representative Representative Sample Sample Obtain Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 32 Types of Survey Questions Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 33 Conducting Interviews The Questions

You Ask Open-Ended Style Closed Style The Way You Ask Questions Question Sequence Potential Answers Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 34 Planning Informational

Informational Planning Reports (LO 5) Explain how to plan informational reports and website content. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 35 Classifying Informational Reports Monitor and Control Operations Implement Policies and

Procedures Demonstrate Compliance Document Progress Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 36 Organizing Informational Reports Comparis on Importanc e

Sequence Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chronolog y Topical Organizati on Geograph y Category Chapter 11 - 37 Special Consideratio ns

Organizing Website Content Web Readers Are Demanding Reading Online Can Be Difficult Medium Is Nonlinear Medium Is Multidimensional Websites Are Multipurpose Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 38 Information Architecture

Consider a Mobile-First Approach Plan Site Structure and Navigation Let Your Readers Be in Control Help Readers Absorb Information Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 39 Planning Analytical Analytical Reports (LO 6) Identify the three most common ways to organize analytical reports. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 11 - 40 Planning Analytical Reports Assessing Opportunities Solving Business Problems Supporting Decision Making Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 41 Understanding the Challenges of Writing Analytical Reports

Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 42 Focusing on Conclusions Advantages Disadvantages Direct Approach Ignores Questions Potential for Presents Main Idea Oversimplification Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 11 - 43 Focusing on Recommendations 1. Establish the need for action. 2. Introduce benefits and potential risks. 3. List the steps (recommendations). 4. Explain each step more fully. 5. Summarize your recommendations. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 44 Focusing on Logical Arguments

TheIndirect IndirectApproach Approach The Skeptic al Readers +22= = 44Approach Approach 22 + Hostile Readers YardstickApproach

Approach Yardstick Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 45 Planning Proposals Proposals Planning (LO 7) Explain how to plan proposals. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 46 General Categories of Proposals

Internal Proposals Request Decisions from Managers in the Organization External Proposals Request Decisions from Parties Outside the Organization Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 47

Structuring Proposals Solicited Proposal Unsolicited Proposal Expected Unexpected Strict Instructions More Flexibility Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11- 48

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2017 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 - 49

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