Understanding by Design:

Understanding by Design the big ideas of UbD 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 1 UBD 08/2002 3 Stages of (Backward) Design 1. Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences & instruction 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 2 UBD 08/2002

Why backward? The stages are logical but they go against habits Were used to jumping to lesson and activity ideas - before clarifying our performance goals for students By thinking through the assessments upfront, we ensure greater alignment of our goals and means, and that teaching is focused on desired results 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 3 UBD 08/2002 Understanding by Design Template: the basis of Exchange The

ubd template embodies the 3 stages of Backward Design The template provides an easy mechanism for exchange of ideas 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 4 Overarching un derstandings Essential Qu estions Knowledge an d skill to be ac quired UBD 08/2002

The big ideas of each stage: Standard(s): Unpack the content standards and What are the big ideas? content, focus on big ideas Analyze multiple Understandings Essential Questions s t a g e 1 Assessment Evidence s

t a g e Performance Task(s): Other Evidence: sources of Whats the evidence? evidence, aligned with Stage 1 Derive the implied learning How will we get there? from Stages 1 & 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe UBD 08/2002 2 LearningActivities

s t a g e 3 5 Each element is found behind a menu tab when designing units Stage 1 Stage 2 U Understandings T Task(s) Q Questions R

Rubric(s) CS Content Standards OE Other Evidence Stage 3 L Learning Plan K Knowledge & Skill 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 6 UBD 08/2002 Not necessary to fill in the template in order

! There are many doorways into successful design you can start with... Content standards Performance goals A key resource or activity A required assessment A big idea, often misunderstood An important skill or process An existing unit or lesson to edit 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 7 UBD 08/2002 Exchange featrues provide other entry points You can

Search for, find, and attach other designers essential questions and understandings to your own unit Use the web links provided to find ideas on relevant sites for each design element Study exemplary units and adapt them to your own needs and interests 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 8 UBD 08/2002 Misconception Alert: the work is non-linear ! It doesnt matter where you start as long as the final design is

coherent (all elements aligned) Clarifying one element or Stage often forces changes to another element or Stage The template blueprint is logical but the process is non-linear (think: home improvement!) 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 9 UBD 08/2002 The big ideas provide a way to connect and recall knowledge The Parallel postulate S.A.S. Congruence Big Idea: A system

A2 + B2 = C2 of many powerful inferences from a small set of givens 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 10 Like rules of a game Like Bill of Rights UBD 08/2002 Big Ideas are typically revealed via Core concepts Focusing themes On-going debates/issues Insightful perspectives

Illuminating paradox/problem Organizing theory Overarching principle Underlying assumption (Key questions) Q (Insightful inferences from facts) U UBD 08/2002 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 11 Big Ideas in Literacy: Examples Rational persuasion (vs. manipulation) audience and purpose in writing A story, as opposed to merely a list of events linked by and then reading between the lines writing as revision a non-rhyming poem vs. prose fiction as a window into truth A critical yet empathetic reader

A writers voice 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 12 UBD 08/2002 Some questions for identifying truly big ideas Does it have many layers and nuances, not obvious to the nave or inexperienced person?

Can it yield great depth and breadth of insight into the subject? Can it be used throughout K12? Do you have to dig deep to really understand its subtle meanings and implications even if anyone can have a surface grasp of it? Is it (therefore) prone to misunderstanding as well as disagreement? Are you likely to change your mind about its meaning and importance over a lifetime? Does it reflect the core ideas as judged by experts? 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 13 UBD 08/2002 Youve got to go below the surface... to uncover the really big ideas. 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe

15 UBD 08/2002 3 Stages of Design, elaborated 1. Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences & instruction 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 16 UBD 08/2002 Stage 1 Identify desired results. Key: Focus on Big ideas

Enduring Understandings: What specific insightsU about big ideas do we want students to leave with? What essential questions will frame the teaching Q and learning, pointing toward key issues and ideas, and suggest meaningful and provocative inquiry into content? What should students know and be able to do? What content standards are addressed explicitly by the unit? CS 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 17

K UBD 08/2002 The big idea of Stage 1: There is a clear focus in the unit on the big ideas Implications: Organize content around key concepts Show how the big ideas offer a purpose and rationale for the student You will need to unpack Content standards in many cases to make the implied big ideas clear 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 18

UBD 08/2002 From Big Ideas to Understandings about them U An understanding is a moral of the story about the big ideas What specific insights will students take away about the the meaning of content via big ideas? Understandings summarize the desired insights we want students to realize 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 19

UBD 08/2002 Understanding, defined: They are... specific generalizations about the big ideas. They summarize the key meanings, inferences, and importance of the content deliberately framed as a full sentence moral of the story Students will understand THAT Require uncoverage because they are not facts to the novice, but unobvious inferences drawn from facts - counterintuitive & easily misunderstood 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 20

UBD 08/2002 Understandings: examples... U Great artists often break with conventions to better express what they see and feel. Price is a function of supply and demand. Friendships can be deepened or undone by hard times History is the story told by the winners F = ma (weight is not mass) Math models simplify physical relations and even sometimes distort relations to deepen our understanding of them The storyteller rarely tells the meaning of the story 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe UBD 08/2002 21 Knowledge vs. Understanding

An understanding is an unobvious and important inference, needing uncoverage in the unit; knowledge is a set of established facts. Understandings make sense of facts, skills, and ideas: they tell us what our knowledge means; they connect the dots Any understandings are inherently fallible theories; knowledge consists of the accepted facts upon which a theory is based and the facts which a theory yields. 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 22 UBD 08/2002 Essential Questions

Q What questions are arguable - and important to argue about? are at the heart of the subject? recur - and should recur - in professional work, adult life, as well as in classroom inquiry? raise more questions provoking and sustaining engaged inquiry? often raise important conceptual or philosophical issues? can provide organizing purpose for meaningful & connected learning?

2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 23 UBD 08/2002 Essential vs. leading Qs used in teaching (Stage 3) Essential - STAGE 1 Leading - STAGE 3 Asked to be argued Designed to uncover new ideas, views, lines of argument Set up inquiry, heading to new

understandings 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 24 Asked as a reminder, to prompt recall Designed to cover knowledge Point to a single, straightforward fact - a rhetorical question UBD 08/2002 Sample Essential Questions:

Q Who are my true friends - and how do I know for sure? How rational is the market? Does a good read differ from a great book? Why are some books fads, and others classics? To what extent is geography destiny? Should an axiom be obvious? How different is a scientific theory from a plausible belief? What is the governments proper role? 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 25 UBD 08/2002 3 Stages of Design: Stage 2 1. Identify desired

results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences & instruction 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 26 UBD 08/2002 Stage 2 Assessment Evidence Template fields ask: What are key complex performance tasks indicative of understanding? T

What other evidence will be collected to build the case for understanding, knowledge, and skill? OE What rubrics will be used to assess complex performance? 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 27 R UBD 08/2002 The big idea for Stage 2 The evidence should be credible & helpful. Implications: the assessments should Be grounded in real-world applications, supplemented as needed by more traditional school evidence Provide useful feedback to the learner, be

transparent, and minimize secrecy Be valid, reliable - aligned with the desired results of Stage 1 (and fair) 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 28 UBD 08/2002 Just because the student knows it Evidence of understanding is a greater challenge than evidence that the student knows a correct or valid answer Understanding is inferred, not seen It can only be inferred if we see evidence that the student knows why (it works) so what? (why it matters), how (to apply it) not just knowing that specific inference

2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 29 UBD 08/2002 Assessment of Understanding via the 6 facets i.e. You really understand when you can: explain, connect, systematize, predict it show its meaning, importance apply or adapt it to novel situations see it as one plausible perspective among others, question its assumptions see it as its author/speaker saw it

avoid and point out common misconceptions, biases, or simplistic views 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 30 UBD 08/2002 Scenarios for Authentic Tasks G R A S P S T Build assessments anchored in authentic tasks using GRASPS: What is the Goal in the scenario?

What is the Role? Who is the Audience? What is your Situation (context)? What is the Performance challenge? By what Standards will work be judged in the scenario? 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 31 UBD 08/2002 Reliability: Snapshot vs. Photo Album We need patterns that

overcome inherent measurement error Sound assessment (particularly of State Standards) requires multiple evidence over time - a photo album vs. a single snapshot 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 32 UBD 08/2002 For Reliability & Sufficiency: Use a Variety of Assessments Varied types, over time: authentic tasks and projects academic exam questions,

prompts, and problems quizzes and test items informal checks for understanding student self-assessments 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 33 UBD 08/2002 Some key understandings about assessment

The local assessment is direct; the state assessment is indirect (an audit of local work) It is therefore always unwise to merely mimic the states assessment approaches The only way to assess for understanding is via contextualized performance - applying in the broadest sense our knowledge and skill, wisely and effectively Performance is more than the sum of the drills: using only conventional quizzes and tests is insufficient and as misleading as relying only on sideline drills to judge athletic performance ability 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 34 UBD 08/2002

3 Stages of Design: Stage 3 1. Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences & instruction 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 35 UBD 08/2002 Stage 3 big idea: E F F E C T I

V E 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe and 36 E N G A G I N G UBD 08/2002 Stage 3 Plan Learning Experiences & Instruction A focus on engaging and effective learning, designed in What learning experiences and instruction will promote the desired

understanding, knowledge and skill of Stage 1? How will the design ensure that all students are maximally engaged and effective at meeting the goals? 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 37 L UBD 08/2002 Think of your obligations via W. H. E. R. E. T. O. W H E R E T O

L Where are we headed? (the students Q!) How will the student be hooked? What opportunities will there be to be equipped, and to experience and explore key ideas? What will provide opportunities to rethink, rehearse, refine and revise? How will students evaluate their work? How will the work be tailored to individual needs, interests, styles? How will the work be organized for maximal engagement and effectiveness? 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 38 UBD 08/2002 Note that some fields require you to enter one idea at a time One idea per box allows for more powerful searching, selecting, and attaching to units when you browse

Essential questions Enduring understandings Tasks of complex performance Rubrics Q U T R Also: makes expert reviewer assignment of blue ribbons more precise 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 39 UBD 08/2002 Help in the Exchange about all template design elements Get to know the icons!

Q A summary of each field Examples for each field A self-test of your understanding for that field FAQs and Glossary ? A special unit in which each field is explained: click the icon for UBD Ubd template TEMPLATE Web links to resources for that field 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 40

UBD 08/2002 for further information... Contact us: Grant Wiggins, co-author: [email protected] Jay McTighe, co-author: [email protected] Steve Petti, webmaster: [email protected] m 2002 Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe 41 UBD 08/2002

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