Understanding Material Safety Data Sheets University of Alaska Fairbanks Environmental Health, Safety, and Risk Management August 2012 1 The Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires manufacturers or distributors of hazardous materials to assess the physical and health hazards of the chemical or product This information must be included in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), which must
be provided to the purchaser of the product with at least the initial shipment of the chemical Outlined in the Hazard Communication Standard, Code of Federal Regulations (29CFR 1910.1200) UNDERSTANDING MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS 2 An MSDS must be obtained and maintained for every chemical/product used in the workplace
The MSDSs must be accessible to all personnel during their work hours UNDERSTANDING MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS 3 The MSDS is typically organized into individual sections NOTE! Not all MSDSs
are the same! Section numbers and contents can vary with each MSDS MSDS Information by Section 4 I. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION Product Name: Commercial or marketing name Synonym: Approved chemical name and/or synonyms
Chemical Family: Group of chemicals with related physical and chemical properties Formula: Chemical formula, if applicable; i.e., the conventional scientific definition for a material CAS Number: Number assigned to chemicals or materials by the Chemical Abstracts Service. The number is unique to each chemical MSDS Information: Section I 5 I. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION (CONT.) Name, address and phone number of the
manufacturer Date MSDS was written National Fire Protection Association rating Storage Color Code MSDS Information: Section I 6 II. COMPONENT DATA (HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS/IDENTITY INFO) Describes the percent composition of the substance, listing chemicals present in the mixture If it was tested as a mixture, lists chemicals which contribute to its hazardous nature
Otherwise, lists ingredients making up more than 1% and all carcinogens MSDS Information: Section II 7 II. COMPONENT DATA (cont.) The OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL) The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) will also be listed, if appropriate
MSDS Information: Section II 8 II. COMPONENT DATA (cont.): OSHA PEL Regulated standard (its the law!) Usually expressed in parts per million parts of air (ppm) or milligrams of dust or vapor per cubic meter of air (mg/m3) Usually a time weighted average (TWA) - concentration averaged over an eight-hour day
MSDS Information: Section II 9 II. COMPONENT DATA (cont.): OSHA PEL STEL or short term exposure limit may be listed STEL is a 15 minute TWA that should not be exceeded A ceiling limit (C), is a concentration which may not be exceeded at any time
A skin notation means that skin exposure (including mucous membranes or eyes) is significant in contributing to the overall exposure MSDS Information: Section II 10 II. COMPONENT DATA (cont.): NIOSH REL & ACGIH TLV Recommended limits TLVs also use TWA, STEL, C Often limits are lower than OSHAs PEL It is UAFs policy to strive to meet
the more conservative standards MSDS Information: Section II 11 III. PRECAUTIONS FOR SAFE HANDLING & STORAGE This section provides information for handling and storing a product. This information may be sometimes found under section VII (REACTIVITY) MSDS Information: Section III 12
IV. PHYSICAL DATA Outlines the physical properties of the material The information may be used to determine conditions for exposure MSDS Information: Section IV 13 IV.
PHYSICAL DATA (cont.) The following information is usually included: Boiling Point: temperature at which liquid changes to vapor state Melting Point: temperature at which a solid begins to change to liquid Vapor Pressure: a measure of how volatile a substance is and how quickly it evaporates MSDS Information: Section IV 14
IV. PHYSICAL DATA (cont.) Vapor Density (air=1): weight of a gas or vapor compared to weight of an equal volume of air Specific Gravity (water=1): ratio of volume weight of material to equal volume weight of water Solubility in Water: percentage of material that will dissolve in water, usually at ambient temperature MSDS Information: Section IV 15 IV.
PHYSICAL DATA (cont.) Appearance/Odor: color, physical state at room temperature, size of particles, consistency, odor, as compared to common substances Odor threshold refers to the concentration required in the air before vapors are detected or recognized MSDS Information: Section IV 16 IV. PHYSICAL DATA (cont.) Decomposition
Temperature: The temperature at which a substance will break down or decompose into smaller fragments % Volatile by Volume: Percentage of a liquid or solid, by volume, that evaporates at a temperature of 70 F MSDS Information: Section IV 17 IV. PHYSICAL DATA (cont.) Evaporation Rate: rate at which a material will
vaporize (change from liquid to vapor) compared to the rate of vaporization of a specific known material, usually n-butyl acetate. Expressed as a ratio is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow Viscosity: MSDS Information: Section IV 18 IV. PHYSICAL DATA (cont.)
pH: describes the acidic or basic nature of a material. Scale ranges from 0 (acidic) to 14 (basic/alkaline) for an aqueous solution Other Pertinent Physical Data: information such as freezing point is given, as appropriate MSDS Information: Section IV 19 V.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Includes general information about appropriate personal protective equipment for handling this material It is vital that this information be followed MSDS Information: Section V 20
V. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (cont.) Eye Protection: recommendations are dependent upon the irritancy, corrosiveness, and special handling procedures Skin Protection: describes the particular types of protective garments and appropriate glove materials to provide personnel protection MSDS Information: Section
MSDS Information: Section V 21 V. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (cont.) Respiratory Protection: appropriate respirators for conditions exceeding the recommended occupational exposure limits Contact EHS&RM (474-5413 or 474-6771) for information prior to the use of ANY respiratory protection equipment
MSDS Information: Section V 22 V. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (cont.) Ventilation: The use of some products may require specific ventilation requirements General Exhaust: A system for exhausting air containing contaminants from a general work area. May be referred to as dilution ventilation
MSDS Information: Section V 23 V. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (cont.): Ventilation Local Exhaust: A system for capturing and exhausting contaminants from the air at the point where the contaminants are produced i.e., capture style hoods for welding, grinding, sanding and operations or laboratory fume hoods for working with hazardous chemicals canopy hood
snorkel hood fume hood MSDS Information: Section V 24 VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA Contains information regarding the recommended extinguishing media to be used in the event of a fire involving the material It
may also provide information regarding unusual fire and explosion hazards associated with the material MSDS Information: Section VI 25 VI: FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.) Auto-ignition Temperature: the approximate temperature at which a flammable gas-air mixture will ignite without spark or flame
Flashpoint: the lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off enough vapor to ignite when a source of ignition is present MSDS Information: Section VI 26 VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.) Combustible: A term used by NFPA, DOT and OSHA to classify liquids on the basis of a flash point range of
100 F to 200 F MSDS Information: Section VI 27 VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.) Flammable: Flammable Liquid is defined by NFPA as a liquid with a flash point below 100 F The OSHA definition is essentially the same The DOT definition of flammable liquid means it has a flash point of 141 F or less
The EPA identifies liquids with a flash point of 140 F or less as flammable liquids MSDS Information: Section VI 28 VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.) Flammable: Flammable Solids, other than explosives, are solids that will ignite readily or are liable to cause fires under ordinary conditions of transportation through friction or retained heat from manufacturing or processing and which burn
so vigorously as to create a serious transportation hazard (DOT Classification). MSDS Information: Section VI 29 VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.) Flammable Limits: LEL (Lower Explosive Limit): Lowest fuel-to-air concentration in which the flammable vapor will produce a flash of fire when an ignition source is present. At concentrations below the LEL, the mixture is too "lean" to burn UEL (Upper Explosive Limit): Highest fuel-toair concentration in which the flammable vapor
will produce a flash of fire when an ignition source is present. At concentrations above the UEL the mixture is too "rich" to burn LEL/UEL concentrations are typically expressed as a lower and upper percentage range in air MSDS Information: Section VI 30 VI. FIRE and EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA (cont.) Extinguishing Media: appropriate extinguishing agent(s) for the material Fire-fighting Procedures: Appropriate equipment and methods are indicated for limiting hazards encountered in fire situations Fire or Explosion Hazards: Hazards and/or
conditions which may cause fire or explosions are defined MSDS Information: Section VI 31 VII. REACTIVITY DATA Includes information regarding the stability of the material and any special storage or use considerations Information may also be found in Section 3 Handling and Storage. MSDS Information: Section VII 32
VII. REACTIVITY DATA (cont.) Stability: Unstable" indicates that a chemical may decompose spontaneously under normal temperatures, pressures, and mechanical shocks Rapid decomposition produces heat and may cause fire or explosion Conditions to avoid are listed in this section Incompatibility: Certain chemicals, when mixed may create hazardous conditions. Incompatible chemicals should not be stored together.
MSDS Information: Section VII 33 VII. REACTIVITY DATA (cont.) Decomposition Products: chemical substances which may be created when the chemical decomposes or burns Polymerization: a chemical reaction in which smaller molecular constituents combine with themselves to form larger, long-chain molecular structures. Rapid polymerization may
produce enough heat to cause containers to explode MSDS Information: Section VII 34 VIII. First Aid Describes first aid procedures to be taken in the event of an exposure Caution needs to be exercised so that those applying first aid do not become exposed to the material for which they are attempting treatment
In the event of an exposure, call 911 to request medical assistance MSDS Information: Section VIII 35 IX. TOXICOLOGY & HEALTH HAZARD DATA Defines the medical signs and symptoms that may be encountered with normal exposure or overexposure to the material or its components
Information on the toxicity of the substance may also be presented MSDS Information: Section IX 36 IX. TOXICOLOGY & HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.) Acute Effect: An adverse effect on a human or animal body resulting from a single exposure with symptoms developing almost immediately or shortly after exposure
Chronic Effect: An adverse effect on a human or animal body resulting from prolonged or repeated exposure with symptoms that develop slowly over a long period of time MSDS Information by Section IX 37 IX. TOXICOLOGY & HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.) Corrosive: A liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or irreversible alterations in human skin tissue
Irritation: An inflammatory response or reaction of the eye, skin or respiratory system Allergic sensitization: A process whereby on first exposure a substance causes little or no reaction, but upon repeated exposure may cause a marked adverse response MSDS Information: Section IX 38 IX. TOXICOLOGY & HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.) Carcinogen: A substance or agent capable of
causing or producing cancer in humans or animals Mutagen: A substance or agent capable of altering genetic material in a living organism Teratogen: A substance or agent to which exposure to a pregnant female can result in malformations to the skeleton or soft tissue of the fetus MSDS Information: Section IX 39 IX. TOXICOLOGY & HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.) Results
of animal studies are most often given. LD50 (lethal dose 50): is the dose of a substance which will cause the death of 50% of the experimental animals LC50 (lethal concentration 50): is the concentration of the substance in air which will cause the death of 50% of the experimental animals MSDS Information: Section IX 40 IX. TOXICOLOGY & HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.) LDLO
(Lethal Dose Low): The lowest dose of a substance introduced by any route other than inhalation reported to have caused death in humans or animals LCLO (Lethal Concentration Low): The lowest concentration of a substance in air that has been reported to have caused death in humans or animals MSDS Information: Section IX 41 IX. TOXICOLOGY & HEALTH HAZARD DATA (cont.) TDLO (Toxic Dose Low): The lowest dose of
a substance to which humans or animals have been exposed and reported to produce a toxic affect other than cancer. Based upon LD50, LC50, LDLO, LCLO and TDLO, an estimate of the potential effects on human health is obtained. MSDS Information: Section IX 42 X. TRANSPORTATION DATA This section contains information
pertinent to DOT (Department of Transportation) regulations governing the transport of hazardous materials. These regulations can be found in 49 CFR parts 100 to 177 Please contact EHS&RM (474-5617 or 4746771) if more information is needed or if shipping hazardous materials MSDS Information: Section X 43 XI. SPILL & LEAK PROCEDURES Outlines general procedures, precautions and methods for cleanup of spills. Clean-up procedures for spills and leaks of hazardous materials are governed by a number of regulatory agencies.
Do not put yourself or others at risk if you are not trained or equipped to cleanup a spill. Contact EHS&RM for assistance or to report a spill. MSDS Information: Section XI 44 XII. WASTE DISPOSAL DATA Contains guidelines for the disposal of the product or product container if it becomes a waste. Hazardous waste is regulated by the EPA, (Environmental Protection Agency) under RCRA (Resource Conservation Recovery Act) regulations found in 40 CFR parts 260-272. Provisions for civil and criminal penalties for the improper storage and disposal of
hazardous waste are included in these regulations. MSDS Information: Section XII 45 XIII. ADDITIONAL REGULATORY INFORMATION Contains information relevant to compliance with other Federal or state laws such as TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act), FIFRA (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act) and others. MSDS Information: Section XIII 46
XIV. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION This section, if present, will contain additional information regarding the product, which was not indicated in previous sections. MSDS Information: Section XIV 47 XIV. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION This section, if present, will contain additional information regarding the product, which was not indicated in previous sections.
XV. MAJOR REFERENCES Lists some of the major references that have been consulted in preparation of the MSDS. MSDS Information: Sections XIV & XV 48 Where to go for more information? http://www.uaf.edu/safety/laboratory-safety/material-safety-data-shee/ Understanding Material Safety Data Sheets 49
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