Unit 1 Part 1: Colonization Europe leading to Colonization; Columbus; and the Columbian Exchange Objectives Students will: Discuss Europe before exploration and colonization Distinguish conditions that led to the conquering and enslavement of Indians Discuss and synthesize a conclusion about European intentions and the effects of those intentions on Indians But Firsta correction! Yesterday during the powerpoint we talked about Native
Americans before Colombus I MADE A MISTAKE!!!!!!! I told you all that Paleo- translated to the Stone Age or Late Stone Age THIS WAS WRONG!! Paleo-Indians directly translates to early Indians; Paleo- means early (thus, Paleolithic means early stone age) This makes since considering we talked about EARLY (Paleo-) INDIANS My bad, I will make certain not to let that happen again Europe Prior to Colonization In order to understand the implications and effects of colonization, we must first review what was happening in Europe that led to the need to colonize the New World (America) During the Middle Ages (between 900 and 1400) Western Europe
was an agricultural society, the majority of its people peasant farmers, whom also raised live stock But as the Middle Ages came to an end, farming technology advanced We see the emergence of water mills, iron plows, harnesses, and the notion/ concept of crop rotation Most Europeans lived in villages; and Europes social system was called feudalism Europe Prior to Colonization (contd) Feudalism = a social system where land is divided amongst lords and families and is dictated by a social hierarchy Lords usually ruled over peasants (serfs) who farmed their land Unequal distribution of wealth (sound familiar?)
Although politically fragmented, Europe was unified under the authority of the Roman Catholic Church (for now) However, most for most Europeans during the MA, conditions were harsh Famine and disease (the bubonic plague had killed 1/3 of western Europeans between 1347 and 1353) Disease and famine led to conflict as groups fought for food and shares of the shrinking economy (both peasants and lords fought) Europe Prior to Colonization (contd) Due to the technological advances of the MA, Europe was able to recover and entered a period known asthe Renaissance (dated roughly between the 14th and 17th cent.; but it really picked up in the 15th cent. [the 1400s])
Name 3 of the technological advances of the MA Europes recovery witnessed the expansion of trade and commerce, a rising merchant class, and an increase in the population Also we see European nations becoming stronger states with more power centered on the monarchs with merchants as their main supporters The alliance between the monarchs and merchants was an Europe Prior to Colonization (contd) The desire to explore overseas developed from two major events: 1) the Crusades; and, 2) the Renaissance The Crusades Italian Crusaders acquired silk and spices from Asia (after they seized control of commerce in the Mediterranean)
Pepper, cinnamon, and nutmeg are just a few examples of the spices Asian civilization also supplied a # of technical innovations such as the compass, gunpowder, and the art of printing with movable type (which led to the printing press) Why do you think English philosopher Francis Bacon called these the three greatest inventions known to man? Were Europeans great inventors or great adaptors? Europe Prior to Colonization (contd) The Renaissance Not only do we see technology gains in western Europe, but we begin to see a fascination with classical antiquity and intellect Important Greek and Roman works had been lost during the Middle Ages, but through trade and war with the Muslims the Europeans
located many of the missing texts a spark in intellectual and artistic interests Human-centered perspective emerged (humanism); the church was becoming less like the central authority of information and more like an authority The Renaissance outlook was a critical component of the spirit that motivated the exploration of the Americas 1492: The Big Year After the Portuguese had successfully explored the Atlantic coast of Africa, Europe began to feel the exploration itch! Christopher Columbus An Italian mariner/ seaman was convinced that he could open a new route to Asia He presented his idea to the Portuguese, the French, and the Englishbut
they laughed at him and rejected his offer (lucky for Columbus) Keep in mind: Through many generations of warfare, the Spanish had developed a military tradition that thrived on conquest and plunder, and the monarchy was eager for new lands to conquer 1492: The Big Year (contd) 1492 Prince Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain embraced the expansionist spirit of the Reconquista (a period of time where Spanish territories were fighting to reclaim land from the Muslims in Iberia) and after purging (getting rid of) Spain of its Moorish population, they were ready to explore enter Christopher Columbus!!! I & F were convinced by CCs plan and decided to finance/fund his expedition
Columbus had two goal: 1) to occupy and settle any islands not under the control of another monarch, claiming title for Spain by right of conquest; and, 2) gold 1492: The Big Year (contd) Looking for China, but instead landed in the Bahamas located in the Caribbean (add a pretty picture of the land) then Cuba and Hispaniola Contrary to poor popular belief Columbus did not discover the United States of America, although these islands lay just off the coast of the US There is evidence of the Norse in Newfoundland during the 10 th-11th cents. He believed the islands to be the East Indies ( a group islands outside of Asia); thus, he called the inhabitants Indians
Despite the presence of other people on the island, Columbus claimed it on behalf of Spain 1492: The Big Year (contd) 1492: The Big Year (contd) Gold upon reaching the islands CC noticed evidence of gold and pursued it by imprisoning the Indians and establishing a settlement on the island he called Hispaniola (now Haiti/ DR) 1493 Columbus returns to Spain to tell Ferdinand and Isabella about his discovery and to ask for more funding to return and obtain more gold
CC exaggerated about his discoveries Columbus succeeded in procuring the support and returns to Hispaniola and establishes a colony 1492: The Big Year (contd) Columbus and the Columbian Exchange When Columbus arrived back in Spain, he brought back native plants and about a dozen Indians dressed in bright feathers and small ornaments of
gold The beginning of the process known as The Colombian Exchange the Transatlantic Trade Route Plants and food; rice, wheat, barley, and coffee from Europe; and tobacco, corn (maize), and chocolate from
America Domesticated Animals; horses, cattle, pigs and sheep from Europe; turkeys, llamas, and alpacas from America Technology; firearms, steel and metal tools from Europe;
canoes and new words from America Oh yeah!...and disease from Europe to America God, Gold, and Glory is a phrase that most concisely summarizes the intentions of the Spanish during exploration God Although the conquistadors were successful at conquering territory and establishing colonies for Spain, they were not effective at running the colonies; so the
king decided to send missionaries to convert the Indians and attempt to make them subjects of the king Gold The purpose for sending Columbus back with more money, men, and ships Glory the feeling Spaniards felt when they conquered and plundered Columbus used force to subjugate the Indians on his quest for gold Isabella, Ferdinand, Columbus, and even the pope had no concern for the people they believed to be pagan savages without any rights (the Indians) They enslaved and forced Indians to work on large farms known as encomiendas; also, they brutally killed many Indians (Hispaniola and Cuba), many of which the King believed would have made good tax-paying subjects, which why he wanted them alive and loyal (send the friars The Implications (or future impact) of
Columbus Implication = To imply is to deduce something; or to figure out something that is not made clear Ex. We know that the Columbian Exchange sounds a lot like the Transatlantic Trade Route So what are some of the implications of Columbuss discovery? Mercantilisim (a concept we will discuss again later in this unit) is a concept that claims that trade created conflict involving rivalry for markets and exploitation of human and natural resources Using force to subjugate (conquer) a population for profit Creating communities based on social inequality Mistreatment of non-European (or minority groups) because the Indians died, the Spanish needed new slaves Africa Many of the issues we see with Columbus and the Indians, we will see with the
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